Non-state security actors

Reaching for a New Approach: A Newcomer NGO Builds a Network to Fight the Modern Slave Trade, 2012-2018

Author
Ann Toews
Focus Area(s)
Country of Reform
Abstract

In the late 1990s and early 2000s, governments and activist organizations around the world set their sights on ending the business of human trafficking. Many groups emerged to assist victims of the crime, but few made progress toward eliminating the roots of the problem. Duncan Jepson, a lawyer for a Hong Kong–based bank, said he believed too little was being done to spotlight the shadowy criminal networks that typically crossed government jurisdictions and sometimes included otherwise legitimate businesses. Jepson decided that disrupting the trade in human beings required new types of collaboration to unravel criminal networks and confront the organizations that abetted their activities. In 2012, he founded a nongovernmental organization called Liberty Asia, which aimed to bridge institutional gaps and approach human trafficking from an economic perspective by using increasingly robust anti-money-laundering tools that were at the disposal of banks and bank regulators. This case profiles Liberty Asia’s efforts and focuses on the challenges associated with coordinating many different types of organizations to confront a common challenge.

Ann Toews drafted this case study based on interviews conducted in March 2017 and January 2018. Case published March 2018.

Gail Teixeira

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Focus Area(s)
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10
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Daniel Scher
Name
Gail Teixeira
Interviewee's Position
Former Minister of Home Affairs
Interviewee's Organization
Guyana
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Guyanese
Town/City
Georgetown
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
Yes
Abstract

Gail Teixeira shares her experiences with policing reform and domestic security issues during her tenure as minister of home affairs in Guyana, first as acting minister in 2004 and then officially in the post from 2005 to 2006.  She describes in detail the process of establishing a functioning civilian police force, including the utilization of community-based rural constables and volunteer neighborhood police as well as the more macro-level issues of donor relations and compliance with international norms as identified by the United Nations.  She provides a compelling account of the challenge of adhering to the cultural and historical expectations of the people at the same time that outside financial assistance and training is going on. The decentralization of the reforms and the policing system are of particular interest, especially in the face of drug-related gang activities.

Profile

At the time of this interview, Gail Teixeira was serving as a member of Guyana's Parliament as well as an adviser to President Bharrat Jagdeo on governance. Her comments center on her experiences as minister of home affairs from 2004 to 2006.

Full Audio File Size
32.7MB
Full Audio Title
Gail Teixeira- Full Interview

Eric Scheye

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Focus Area(s)
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19
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Gordon Peake
Name
Eric Scheye
Interviewee's Position
Independent Consultant
Interviewee's Organization
Justice and Security Sector Development and Conflict Management
Language
English
Town/City
New York, NY
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

Eric Scheye discusses his experiences working on police reform programs around the world with the United Nations and as an independent consultant. He begins by discussing the tensions inherent in donor-funded reform programs. As there is often a rush to implement police reform programs, he notes, they are not necessarily tailored to local contexts and circumstances. Scheye goes on to talk about challenges in effective police recruitment and vetting processes, including in Bosnia and Timor-Leste where political maneuvering and ethnic divisions were considerations in developing new police leadership structures. He argues that in order to build long-term accountability, internal reform efforts should take precedence over external accountability mechanisms. Further, in order to retain officers, police training, states Scheye, should be embedded in a management-training program with appropriate incentives. He notes that evaluating a reform program can be challenging and requires political astuteness and listening as much as numbers. Finally, Scheye discusses the provision of policing services in Yemen and Sudan by non-state actors such as customary chiefs. Given that customary chiefs have high levels of legitimacy and wield justice in areas where state police services tend to be limited, Scheye suggests that donors consider new approaches to constructively engaging with non-state actors. 

Profile

At the time of this interview, Eric Scheye was an independent consultant in justice and security sector development and conflict management.   Prior to becoming a consultant, he worked with the United Nations Mission in Bosnia, where he specialized in policing and police development, as well as with the United Nations Department of Peacekeeping and the United Nations Development Programme in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Timor-Leste, Honduras, Kosovo and Serbia. Scheye also worked for two and a half years on a U.K.-sponsored integrated justice program in Yemen, where he helped develop a justice and policing program. He has conducted assessments of non-state/local justice and security networks in southern Sudan for the U.S. and U.K., and has had consultancy assignments around the world on behalf of research institutes, non-governmental organizations, the U.N. and government agencies. 

Full Audio File Size
122 MB
Full Audio Title
Eric Scheye - Full Interview

Francis Alieu Munu

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Focus Area(s)
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15
Critical Tasks
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Arthur Boutellis
Name
Francis Alieu Munu
Interviewee's Position
Assistant Inspector General, Crime Services
Interviewee's Organization
Sierra Leone Police
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Sierra Leonean
Place (Building/Street)
Sierra Leone Police headquarters
Town/City
Freetown
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract
Francis Munu discusses reforms in the Sierra Leone Police, many of which were ongoing at the time of the interview. He speaks about the challenges confronting the police in the wake of the Sierra Leone Civil War, especially in dealing with rebel forces. He discusses many of the successes in dealing with these issues: more transparent recruitment, policing of refugee camps and elections, improved community relations, new means of addressing gender-motivated crime, and the highly successful Community Arms Collection and Destruction Program. Munu discusses police success in improving community relations through outreach, improved service delivery and improved media relations. He also speaks about some of the contemporary challenges facing the police, including crimes committed by youth and a burgeoning drug-trafficking problem. Finally, Munu reflects upon improvements that he sees as key to future progress, especially the use of electronic databases for criminal identification and advanced forensic techniques for investigations.
Profile

At the time of this interview,  Francis Munu was assistant inspector general for crime services at the Sierra Leone Police. He joined the police service in 1984 and held various positions prior to becoming assistant inspector general.

Full Audio File Size
64MB
Full Audio Title
Francis Munu Interview

Organizing the Return of Government to Conflict Zones, Colombia, 2004-2009

Author
Matthew Devlin, Sebastian Chaskel
Country of Reform
Abstract

In May 2004, Colombia’s Office of the Presidency established a national-level agency, the Centro de Coordinación de Acción Integral, to manage the reintroduction of state institutions into areas that had been retaken from leftist guerrillas, right-wing paramilitaries and drug traffickers. The agency set up a central Bogotá office from which it coordinated work in so-called consolidation zones around the country. In many of these areas, the government had either been absent for decades or never present. In the words of Andres Peñate, former vice minister of defense and an architect of the initiative, “Although we were all Colombians, it was almost like conquering a different country.” Despite setbacks, by late 2009 the agency had received broad-based domestic and international endorsement.

Matthew Devlin and Sebastian Chaskel drafted this case study on the basis of interviews conducted in Colombia during October and November 2009. 

Associated Interview(s):  Diego Molano

Enhancing Security to Restore Credibility: Safeguarding Elections in the Philippines, 2008-2010

Author
Michael Scharff
Country of Reform
Abstract
Citizens of the Philippines braced for renewed election violence in 2010, as bitter political feuds and longstanding family rivalries simmered. Candidate-hired private militias and other armed political groups threatened to disrupt presidential and local voting, as they had in 2004. The job of building safety, trust and credibility into the electoral process fell to Jose A.R. Melo, a former associate justice of the Supreme Court who took over as head of the Commission on Elections in 2008, after a series of scandals that culminated in the resignation of the panel’s chairman. Appointed by the nation’s president, Melo recognized the urgent need to restore trust and credibility to the electoral process. While working to automate the balloting process, Melo sought a broader approach to reducing electoral violence. In conjunction with the police and army, Melo devised and implemented stricter rules regarding weapons and security personnel, and he organized a network of security centers that enforced the new rules.  The May 2010 elections experienced less violence than the previous presidential and local elections in 2004, although questions arose over the susceptibility of the security forces to political coercion. 
 

Michael Scharff drafted this case study on the basis of interviews conducted in Manila and Iloilo, Philippines, in March 2011. Case published in July 2011.

Building an Inclusive, Responsive National Police Service: Gender-Sensitive Reform in Liberia, 2005-2011

Author
Laura Bacon
Country of Reform
Abstract

After Liberia’s 14-year civil war ended in 2003, the government began to overhaul its security sector. The Liberia National Police (LNP), whose capacity was ravaged and reputation tarnished during the war, sought to improve its services and build the community’s trust. Gender-sensitive reform at the LNP was high on President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf’s agenda, given low numbers of women in the security sector and high rates of sexual and gender-based violence. Between 2005 and 2011, LNP reformers Beatrice Munah Sieh, Asatu Bah-Kenneth, Vera Manly and others led innovative efforts to make the police service more inclusive and responsive. In particular, they sought to recruit female officers at a rapid pace and to launch a Women and Children Protection Section. By July 2011, although the police service still identified shortcomings in capacity and the justice system more broadly, it could boast an increased percentage of female officers (17%, compared with 2% in 2005), 217 specially trained officers deployed in 52 Women and Children Protection Section units across Liberia, more women in leadership positions, and improved responsiveness and public image. This case chronicles police reform in a post-conflict setting, examining the challenges of promoting diversity, building capacity, conducting community outreach and awareness, and delivering services to remote areas.

 
Laura Bacon drafted this case study on the basis of interviews she conducted in Monrovia, Liberia, in June and July 2011, interviews conducted by Arthur Boutellis in Monrovia in May 2008, and text prepared by Christine MacAulay. Case published April 2012. A companion piece, “Building Civilian Police Capacity: Post-Conflict Liberia,” addresses broader police reforms from 2003 to 2011. 
 
Associated Interviews:  David Beer, Paavani Reddy

Robin Campbell

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Focus Area(s)
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3
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Daniel Scher
Name
Robin Campbell
Interviewee's Position
Former Chief Superintendent
Interviewee's Organization
Police Service of Northern Ireland
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Northern Ireland
Town/City
Belfast
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

Robin Campbell relates his experience in working for police reform in Sierra Leone, Nigeria and other countries.  He covers topics including recruitment and vetting, as well as the challenges of integrating and amalgamating different security forces with varying histories and organizational cultures into a new civilian police force.  He also covers the role of nonstate security actors in developing countries and reflects on the difficulty of forging and managing a productive relationship between these groups and the official police force.  He illuminates his experience in the developing world with reflections on the transformation of the Royal Ulster Constabulary into today's Police Service of Northern Ireland.

Case Study:  Cooling Ethnic Conflict Over a Heated Election: Guyana, 2001-2006

Profile

At the time of this interview, Robin Campbell was a consultant for both public and private-sector organizations undergoing structural change, with a particular emphasis on police services in developing countries. He previously was the deputy change manager and director of corporate development responsible for the implementation of the Patten Commission recommendations for the police in Northern Ireland.  The Patten recommendations guided the 10-year process of police reform that saw the Royal Ulster Constabulary transformed into the Police Service of Northern Ireland.  Campbell served as the chief superintendent of the police service before launching his own consultancy.  He worked in many countries in the developing world.

Full Audio File Size
43 MB
Full Audio Title
Robin Campbell - Full Interview

Bruce Baker

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Focus Area(s)
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1
Interviewers
Gordon Peake
Name
Bruce Baker
Interviewee's Position
Professor of African Security
Interviewee's Organization
Coventry University
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
British
Town/City
Coventry
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

Bruce Baker draws on his policing experience in a number of African countries.  He talks about community policing and the vital though sometimes controversial role of non-state security actors in areas where the police struggle to extend their authority.  He also discusses the intersection of non-state security groups and customary justice, and he offers reflections on donor and host-country partnerships.

Case Study:  Building Civilian Police Capacity: Post-Conflict Liberia, 2003-2011

Profile

At the time of this interview, Bruce Baker was a professor of African security and director of the African Studies Centre at Coventry University, U.K.  He earned a bachelor's degree from the University of Sussex and master's and doctoral degrees from Coventry University in the U.K.  He has lectured at Coventry University and been a Research Fellow at Rhodes University in South Africa.  He ran research projects on security issues in a number of African countries and conducted research for government and private organizations in the U.K.  He wrote numerous articles and books, including "Escape from Domination in Africa: Political Disengagement and its Consequences" (James Curry, 2000), “Taking the Law into Their Own Hands: Lawless Law Enforcers in Africa” (Ashgate, 2002), and “Security in Post-Conflict Africa: The Role of Nonstate Policing” (Taylor and Francis, 2009). 

Full Audio File Size
34 MB
Full Audio Title
Bruce Baker - Full Interview

Giorgio Butini

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Focus Area(s)
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1
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Matthew Devlin
Name
Giorgio Butini
Interviewee's Position
Former Central Coordinator and Deputy Head of Program
Interviewee's Organization
Proxima (EU police mission in Macedonia)
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Italian
Town/City
Skopje
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

Giorgio Butini, police adviser to the Office of the EUSR/EU Commission Delegation in Skopje, Macedonia, recounts his experiences while serving as central coordinator and deputy head of program for Proxima, the European Union police mission in the former Yugoslav republic.  During 18 years with the Italian State Police, he rose to the rank of lieutenant colonel.  Butini discusses the coordination of efforts of various external organizations in the transition from a military to civilian police force in Macedonia.  His reflections about the representation of ethnic Albanians and Macedonians in the reformed police force and his insights into the coordination of efforts between and among external and internal actors contribute to the conversation on structural components of policing reform.

Profile

At the time of this interview, Giorgio Butini was police adviser to the Office of the EUSR/ EU Commission Delegation in Skopje, Macedonia. A lieutenant colonel of the Italian State Police with 18 years of active service, in 2001 he joined the United Nations mission in Kosovo, where he served for more than a year as deputy regional commander in the Pec/Peja Region.  In 2003 he went to Brussels as a police expert during the Italian presidency of the European Union.  In October 2003 he was part of the planning team in Brussels and Skopje that launched Proxima,  the EU police mission in the former Yugoslav republic, where he served for two years, first as central coordinator and then as deputy head of program.  Co-author of a manual on international police missions, he was also a trainer at the European Police Academy beginning in 2002.

Full Audio File Size
37.5MB
Full Audio Title
Giorgio Butini- Full Interview