External accountability

Building Responsible Government: Benin's National Evaluation System, 2007-2015

Author
Pallavi Nuka and Khady Thiam
Focus Area(s)
Country of Reform
Abstract

Beginning in 2007, Benin’s reformist leaders sought to strengthen the quality of governance and public management by instituting a system for evaluating public policies. National policies and programs often had little impact on development outcomes, and existing systems for monitoring and evaluating government initiatives were largely donor driven and designed to fit donors’ needs. As a result, the government struggled to define, prioritize, and coordinate policies within and across disparate sectors like agriculture, health, and education. With the support of newly elected president, Boni Yayi, Pascal Koupaki, Benin’s minister for planning, development and evaluation, created a bureau for policy evaluation to analyze public policies across different ministries, assess their impacts, and recommend improvements. Given the prevalence of inefficiency and ineffectiveness, the idea of evaluation initially enjoyed little political support. However, a small team based in Koupaki’s ministry, gradually built national evaluation capacities and increased internal demand for policy evaluation. By 2015, the bureau had become a permanent part of the administration, completed more than a dozen evaluation studies, and inspired the establishment of national evaluation mechanisms in West African neighbors Togo, Burkina Faso, and Mali.

Pallavi Nuka, ISS Associate Director, and Khady Thiam, of Sciences Po's Paris School of International Affairs drafted this case study based on interviews conducted in Cotonou and Abidjan in September 2015. This case study was funded by the French Development Agency. Case published April 2016.

Ramchrisen Haveria

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Focus Area(s)
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15
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Nicolas Lemay-Hebert
Name
Ramchrisen Haveria
Interviewee's Position
Deputy District Commander
Interviewee's Organization
United Nations Integrated Mission in Timor-Leste
Language
English
Place (Building/Street)
National Police Headquarters
Town/City
Newtown Area, Baucau
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract
Ramchristen Haveria explains the role of the United Nations missions in Timor-Leste and in Kosovo. The main goal of the missions is to assist both countries to establish effective police systems through their mentoring program while working with the local communities. The implementation of the U.N. guidelines in both countries is quite similar. Haveria discusses how the United Nations Police (UNPOL) contributed in the improvement of order in Timor-Leste by teaching the local police ways of implementing and maintaining public order. Some of the challenges they faced in the missions were cultural and language barriers, logistics problems, and hostility in some areas. Haveria also discusses the U.N. internal management and its relationship with the local personnel and the rest of the population.
Profile

At the time of this interview, Ramchristen Haveria was the deputy district commander for the United Nations Integrated Mission in Baucau, Timor-Leste. He previously worked at the regional operations office in the Philippines. Also, he served concurrently as the station chief of the Police Community Relations Office and as the chief of the Internal Affairs Office. He also worked as the chief of the Drug Enforcement Unit and as the assistant chief of the Special Operations group. He was involved in U.N. missions in Timor-Leste and Kosovo. 

Full Audio File Size
56MB
Full Audio Title
Ramchristen Haveria Interview

Rudolfo Landeros

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I
Focus Area(s)
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11
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Arthur Boutellis
Name
Rudolfo Landeros
Interviewee's Position
Senior Police Adviser
Interviewee's Organization
United Nations Integrated Office in Sierra Leone
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
American
Place (Building/Street)
United Nations Integrated Office
Town/City
Freetown
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

Rudolfo Landeros discusses improvements in capacity within the Sierra Leone Police with aid from the United Nations. He begins by discussing the challenges faced by the police, including logistical and budgetary constraints, and shortcomings in officer training. He reflects on the problem of discipline and accountability in the police, and discusses both internal accountability mechanisms as well as steps in the direction of creating an external oversight authority. He lauds the creation and performance of an unarmed Crowd Control Unit through the training of trainers within the police, and the success in policing the 2007 elections. He also speaks about the prevention of sexual harassment and discrimination within the police. Finally, he reflects on U.N. Police operations, and he argues that the operations would be improved by more extensive induction training, longer deployments for management and budgetary autonomy for non-executive departments.

Profile

At the time of this interview, Rudolfo Landeros was senior police adviser at the United Nations Integrated Office in Sierra Leone. Prior to that, he spent more than 24 years at the Austin, Texas, police department, where his positions included assistant chief of police.

Full Audio File Size
68MB
Full Audio Title
Rudolfo Landeros Interview

Agathe Florence Lele

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Focus Area(s)
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1
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Arthur Boutellis
Name
Agathe Florence Lele
Interviewee's Position
Senior Police Adviser
Interviewee's Organization
United Nations Integrated Mission in Burundi
Language
French
Nationality of Interviewee
Cameroonian
Town/City
Bujumbura
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract
Agathe Lele comments on the originality of the United Nations Integrated Mission in Burundi, where the police unit was part of the SSR/SA unit; in most other peacekeeping missions, the police adviser responds directly to the SRSG/head of mission. One major achievement was the adoption of a new organizational chart for the Burundi National Police in September 2007, with new  commissariats to coordinate different police services at the regional level. She describes some of the mission's other programs of support: equipment and training, uniforms, communication at regional levels, databases for personnel and crimes, sensitization on gender, programs with intelligence service and general inspection.  Some of the greatest challenges, according to Lele, stemmed from a young police force that grew quickly due to the integration process, citing the vetting that would take place under the Truth and Reconciliation Committee.  Lele also addresses some of the issues related to bilateral cooperation.
Profile

Agathe Florence Lele graduated from the Cameroon police academy in 1980, worked for 14 years in the intelligence unit, attended training in France in 2000 and 2005, served as a member of the Interpol executive committee from 2003 to 2006, and became the director of training in Cameroon during 2006-2007. At the time of this interview, she was the senior police adviser with the United Nations Integrated Mission in Burundi, a post that she began in June 2007.

Full Audio File Size
72 MB
Full Audio Title
Agathe Lele - Full Interview

Astor Escalante Saravia

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Focus Area(s)
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1
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Flor Hunt
Name
Astor Escalante Saravia
Interviewee's Position
Vice Minister of Public Security and Justice
Interviewee's Organization
El Salvador
Language
Spanish
Nationality of Interviewee
El Salvadoran
Place (Building/Street)
Ministry of Public Security
Town/City
San Salvador
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

Astor Escalante Saravia explains the internal development of the Ministry of Public Security in El Salvador, which oversees all pertinent branches, including the National Civil Police and the National Academy for Public Security.  He describes a multi-player approach to institutional reform that involves the National Council on Security and Peace, UNDP, and a number of NGOs that specialize in crime prevention and rehabilitation for former gang members.  While recent reforms have been successful, he says, lack of resources remains a challenge. Concerning the National Civil Police, Saravia identifies three areas for improvement. The first has to do with the failure of the current model to insulate police officers who work within their own communities from risks and ties to the criminals that operate in the same turf. The second critical issue involves corruption.  He emphasizes the role of perception, and highlights the large impact of small measures like changing the uniforms of the Transit Police to increase accountability.  The third issue concerns proper police conduct and the problem of police brutality, which he says is being addressed nationwide by virtual training based on case studies.

Profile

At the time of this interview, Astor Escalante Saravia was El Salvador's vice minister of public security and justice, a post he held since 2006.  He was the director of the penitentiary system in 2005, after working for eight years in the National Public Prosecutor’s office as a prosecutor and chief prosecutor.  Previously he served as an adviser to the Ministry of Government, which oversaw the security sector until the Ministry of Public Security was created with a mandate to govern the police and associated agencies.

Full Audio File Size
72MB
Full Audio Title
Astor Escalante Saravia Interview

Ekaterine Tkeshelashvili

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Focus Area(s)
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8
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Matthew Devlin
Name
Ekaterine Tkeshelashvili
Interviewee's Position
International Security Adviser
Interviewee's Organization
National Security Council, Republic of Georgia
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Georgian
Town/City
Tbilisi
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract
Eka Tkeshelashvili describes police reforms in Georgia. Shortly after it assumed power, the reform government fired the entire traffic police force because of rampant corruption.  Few serious consequences flowed from this decision, though some of those discharged may have joined criminal groups.  She says that the high level of organized crime and paramilitary activity that afflicted Georgia in the early 1990s was more or less under control. In rebuilding the police force, she says, the government recruited candidates with the proper credentials and training, and pay levels were increased significantly. The Police Academy was equipped with more up-to-date facilities and curricula. Prison facilities were reformed and human rights for prisoners gained improved protection.  Police management was decentralized.  External oversight of police activity and of the prisons was improved, and the public was given new ways to report and comment on police performance.
 
Profile
At the time of this interview, Eka Tkeshelashvili was the international security adviser to Georgia's National Security Council. For the last half of 2008, she served as Georgia’s foreign minister. Earlier that year, she was prosecutor general. In 2006 and 2007, she headed the Tbilisi Court of Appeals.  In 2007, she was minister of justice. She first joined the government in 2005 and served as deputy minister of interior. She graduated from the Faculty of International Law and International Relations at Tbilisi State University in 1999.
Full Audio File Size
41MB
Full Audio Title
Eka Tkeshelashvili Interview

Sifuni Mchome

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Focus Area(s)
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7
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Daniel Scher
Name
Sifuni Mchome
Interviewee's Position
Dean, Faculty of Law
Interviewee's Organization
University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Tanzanian
Place (Building/Street)
University of Dar es Salaam
Town/City
Dar es Salaam
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
Yes
Abstract
Sifuni Mchome, the dean of the Faculty of Law at the University of Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania, talks about his involvement in the country's police reform program. Together with a colleague from the university, he discusses how they embarked on rewriting the Police General Orders, which instruct the police on conduct, in order to make the orders more useful in the changing field of law enforcement. The initial document lacked operative principles, it was not up-to-date with the law, it contradicted the Bill of Rights, and it lacked clear instructions on how to conduct an arrest. Mchome also explains the challenges of implementing the reforms, which included logistical problems, limited human and financial resources, the law's lack of guidance on how police power and functions should be discharged, and the absence of a configured law enforcement system to promote intelligence-led policing through the cooperation of entities like the police force, the prisons, and the courts. Through a modernization drive, Mchome describes efforts to empower the police, to retool and to provide new techniques for dealing with increasingly sophisticated criminals.  An independent directorate was created under the Ministry of Home Affairs to monitor the police force and to deal with complaints collection.
 
 
Profile
At the time of this interview, Sifuni Mchome was the dean of the Faculty of Law at the University of Dar Es Salaam in Tanzania. He previously worked in the Department of Civil and Criminal Law, with a specialty in criminal justice. Mchome previously was involved in policing. He participated in a program run by the Legal Aid Committee of the Faculty of Law, University of Dar Es Salaam, which involved training police officers and prison and judicial officials. 
Full Audio File Size
51MB
Full Audio Title
Sifuni Mchome Interview

Giorgio Butini

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Focus Area(s)
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1
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Matthew Devlin
Name
Giorgio Butini
Interviewee's Position
Former Central Coordinator and Deputy Head of Program
Interviewee's Organization
Proxima (EU police mission in Macedonia)
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Italian
Town/City
Skopje
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

Giorgio Butini, police adviser to the Office of the EUSR/EU Commission Delegation in Skopje, Macedonia, recounts his experiences while serving as central coordinator and deputy head of program for Proxima, the European Union police mission in the former Yugoslav republic.  During 18 years with the Italian State Police, he rose to the rank of lieutenant colonel.  Butini discusses the coordination of efforts of various external organizations in the transition from a military to civilian police force in Macedonia.  His reflections about the representation of ethnic Albanians and Macedonians in the reformed police force and his insights into the coordination of efforts between and among external and internal actors contribute to the conversation on structural components of policing reform.

Profile

At the time of this interview, Giorgio Butini was police adviser to the Office of the EUSR/ EU Commission Delegation in Skopje, Macedonia. A lieutenant colonel of the Italian State Police with 18 years of active service, in 2001 he joined the United Nations mission in Kosovo, where he served for more than a year as deputy regional commander in the Pec/Peja Region.  In 2003 he went to Brussels as a police expert during the Italian presidency of the European Union.  In October 2003 he was part of the planning team in Brussels and Skopje that launched Proxima,  the EU police mission in the former Yugoslav republic, where he served for two years, first as central coordinator and then as deputy head of program.  Co-author of a manual on international police missions, he was also a trainer at the European Police Academy beginning in 2002.

Full Audio File Size
37.5MB
Full Audio Title
Giorgio Butini- Full Interview

Vincent Dzakpata

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Focus Area(s)
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4
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Arthur Boutellis
Name
Vincent Dzakpata
Interviewee's Position
United Nations Police Chief of Staff
Interviewee's Organization
United Nations Integrated Office in Sierra Leone
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Ghanaian
Town/City
Freetown
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

Vincent Dzakpata recounts his experiences as the United Nations Police chief of staff in the U.N. Integrated Office in Sierra Leone.  He was brought in to help build the capacity of the Sierra Leone police service and improve professionalism in preparation for the 2007 presidential and parliamentary elections.  Dzakpata identifies some of the major obstacles that reformers in the country faced, including a lack of motivation and commitment among officers and their reluctance to take ownership of proposed reforms.  Another major issue was poverty.  Many of the members of the Sierra Leone police were under severe financial pressure, to the point that it inhibited their ability to perform their jobs.  The officers, particularly those of the unarmed general policing unit, often lacked the self-confidence required to effectively do their jobs; some claimed that northerners tended to be favored in the system.  Dzakpata maintains the importance of improving the self-regulation mechanisms within the police force, as well as the expansion of the mechanisms in place for external regulation, including the Complaints Disciplinary Internal Investigations Department, which he commends as having helped restore public trust in the Sierra Leone police.  He suggests that reforms likely would have achieved greater success and permanance if the U.N. had the authority to take disciplinary action against state officers who resisted change.

Case Study:  Building Strategic Capacity in the Police: Sierra Leone, 1998-2008

Profile

At the time of this interview, Vincent Dzakpata was the United Nations Police chief of staff in the U.N. Integrated Office in Sierra Leone.  After leaving teacher training college, he joined the police force in his native Ghana for a number of years, working in many departments including criminal investigations and operations, and eventually served as both a divisional and regional police commander.  Dzakpata’s first experience with international policing came with his 1997 deployment to Bosnia, where he served as a district human rights officer and later as a district elections officer.  He was deployed to Sierra Leone in 2006, initially as the U.N. police adviser on professional standards and eventually as the chief of staff of the U.N. police. 

Full Audio File Size
55 MB
Full Audio Title
Vincent Dzakpata Interview

Gail Teixeira

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Focus Area(s)
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10
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Daniel Scher
Name
Gail Teixeira
Interviewee's Position
Former Minister of Home Affairs
Interviewee's Organization
Guyana
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Guyanese
Town/City
Georgetown
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
Yes
Abstract

Gail Teixeira shares her experiences with policing reform and domestic security issues during her tenure as minister of home affairs in Guyana, first as acting minister in 2004 and then officially in the post from 2005 to 2006.  She describes in detail the process of establishing a functioning civilian police force, including the utilization of community-based rural constables and volunteer neighborhood police as well as the more macro-level issues of donor relations and compliance with international norms as identified by the United Nations.  She provides a compelling account of the challenge of adhering to the cultural and historical expectations of the people at the same time that outside financial assistance and training is going on. The decentralization of the reforms and the policing system are of particular interest, especially in the face of drug-related gang activities.

Profile

At the time of this interview, Gail Teixeira was serving as a member of Guyana's Parliament as well as an adviser to President Bharrat Jagdeo on governance. Her comments center on her experiences as minister of home affairs from 2004 to 2006.

Full Audio File Size
32.7MB
Full Audio Title
Gail Teixeira- Full Interview