UN Policies

David Beer

Ref Batch
B
Focus Area(s)
Ref Batch Number
1
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Arthur Boutellis
Name
David Beer
Interviewee's Position
Chief Superintendent, Director General of International Policing
Interviewee's Organization
Royal Canadian Mounted Police
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Canadian
Town/City
Ottawa
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
Yes
Abstract

Chief Superintendent Dave Beer of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police recounts his experiences in leading policing/justice development missions, particularly in Haiti, in the early 1990s and then about a decade later.  His length of service in the arena of international peacekeeping and the parameters under which he has served, both as a representative of the Canadian government during a bilateral mission and under the aegis of the United Nations during a multilateral mission through the Department of Peacekeeping Operation, carries with it a broad viewpoint as to the development of policing in Haiti. His experience in other states, particularly Iraq and Liberia, provides a comparative study of best practices. He particularly offers insight into pre-deployment training by the U.N. and the Canadian government and on-the-ground knowledge of local recruitment strategies and requirements.  The sentiments of this quote reverberate throughout the interview,  "It is an axiom, I think, of this world of international development that you have to find local solutions led by local individuals supported by the local government for it to be either a) instituted; b) successful; and c) sustainable. You’re not going to have any one of those three unless it’s a locally-created program."

Case Study:  Building an Inclusive, Responsive National Police Service: Gender-Sensitive Reform in Liberia, 2005-2011

Profile

At the time of this interview, Chief Superintendent Dave Beer was serving as the director general of international policing for the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, a position that included peace-operations deployments, liaison with INTERPOL, and oversight of the international operations branch, the visits and travel branch, and the international affairs and policy branch.  Beer led or participated in policing development missions under the auspices of the Canadian International Development Agency, the United Nations Department of Peacekeeping Operations and the U.S. State Department.  Although he spent the most time in Haiti, partially due to his being bilingual in French and English, he also served in Liberia, Central African Republic and Iraq.   

Full Audio File Size
37 MB
Full Audio Title
Dave Beer - Full Interview

Garry Horlacher

Ref Batch
I
Focus Area(s)
Ref Batch Number
8
Critical Tasks
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Arthur Boutellis
Name
Garry Horlacher
Interviewee's Position
Security Sector Reform Coordinator
Interviewee's Organization
U.K. Department for International Development
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
British
Place (Building/Street)
State House
Town/City
Freetown
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract
Garry Horlacher discusses police reform in Sierra Leone under the auspices of the U.K. Department for International Development and the United Nations. He identifies corrupt and inconsistent recruitment processes and low salaries for undermining the integrity of the Sierra Leone Police, and he emphasizes the need for improved funding and logistics. He discusses steps taken to address these issues, including managing the size of the police force and consistent, centralized recruitment practices. Horlacher also speaks about training and organization of the police force, and emphasizes the importance of coordination mechanisms between departments and agencies. He also discusses nascent performance and information management policies and community policing initiatives. Finally, Horlacher reflects on donor relations and U.N. policies, placing special emphasis on increased and consistent training of both U.N. and local police officers, and the coordination of priorities among donor organizations.
 
Profile

At the time of the interview, Garry Horlacher was security sector reform coordinator for the U.K. Department for International Development. Prior to that, he was part of the U.K. police for 30 years, retiring with the rank of chief superintendent.

Full Audio File Size
63MB
Full Audio Title
Garry Horlacher Interview

John Nikita

Ref Batch
B
Focus Area(s)
Ref Batch Number
3
Critical Tasks
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Arthur Boutellis
Name
John Nikita
Interviewee's Position
Retired Superintendent
Interviewee's Organization
Royal Canadian Mounted Police
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Canadian
Town/City
Ottawa
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

John Nikita, a 33-year veteran of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, shares his experiences in three different United Nations peacekeeping operations: Haiti, Kosovo and Afghanistan.  Nikita discusses the challenges of recruitment and vetting, particularly in countries that are under the administration of the United Nations and have ceased to have a functioning military.  His experiences with donor relations, between individual donor states and the U.N., offers insight into the coordination of efforts required for police reform.  He reflects on the predeployment training policies of the Canadian government, as compared with the U.N.'s Department of Peacekeeping Operations, and on the changing nature of the "traditional" peacekeeping operation.  Nikita stresses the importance of the preparedness, cultural sensitivity and suitability of the U.N. and donor state police advisors on the ground in addition to the quality of the recruits for the national police. 

Case study: Building the Police Service in a Security Vacuum: International Efforts in Kosovo, 1999-2011

Profile

At the time of this interview, John Nikita had retired as director of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police's International Peace Operations Branch in Ottawa, at the rank of superintendent, after more than 33 years of service to Canada.  As a member of Canada's national police service, he served in a variety of positions including municipal, provincial and federal law enforcement.  In 1994, he formed the RCMP's United Nations Civilian Police Administration and Logistics Unit.  After establishing Canada's national police peacekeeping operations program, he went on to serve in three U.N. peacekeeping operations.  In 1997, he served as the deputy commissioner and chief of operations for the U.N. mission in Haiti.  In 2000-2001, he served as the chief of operations of the U.N. Interim Administration Mission Border Police, followed by a period as the chief of human resources of the Kosovo Police Service within the U.N. mission in Kosovo.  In 2005-2006, Nikita served as the senior police adviser to the U.N. Assistance Mission in Afghanistan.

Full Audio File Size
88 MB
Full Audio Title
John Nikita - Full Interview

Rudolfo Landeros

Ref Batch
I
Focus Area(s)
Ref Batch Number
11
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Arthur Boutellis
Name
Rudolfo Landeros
Interviewee's Position
Senior Police Adviser
Interviewee's Organization
United Nations Integrated Office in Sierra Leone
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
American
Place (Building/Street)
United Nations Integrated Office
Town/City
Freetown
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

Rudolfo Landeros discusses improvements in capacity within the Sierra Leone Police with aid from the United Nations. He begins by discussing the challenges faced by the police, including logistical and budgetary constraints, and shortcomings in officer training. He reflects on the problem of discipline and accountability in the police, and discusses both internal accountability mechanisms as well as steps in the direction of creating an external oversight authority. He lauds the creation and performance of an unarmed Crowd Control Unit through the training of trainers within the police, and the success in policing the 2007 elections. He also speaks about the prevention of sexual harassment and discrimination within the police. Finally, he reflects on U.N. Police operations, and he argues that the operations would be improved by more extensive induction training, longer deployments for management and budgetary autonomy for non-executive departments.

Profile

At the time of this interview, Rudolfo Landeros was senior police adviser at the United Nations Integrated Office in Sierra Leone. Prior to that, he spent more than 24 years at the Austin, Texas, police department, where his positions included assistant chief of police.

Full Audio File Size
68MB
Full Audio Title
Rudolfo Landeros Interview

Carlos Manuel Lopes Pereira

Ref Batch
P
Focus Area(s)
Ref Batch Number
22
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Nicolas Lemay-Hebert
Name
Carlos Manuel Lopes Pereira
Interviewee's Position
Dili District Deputy Commander
Interviewee's Organization
United Nations Police, East Timor
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Portuguese
Town/City
Dili
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract
Carlos Manuel Lopes Pereira describes his work for United Nations missions in the former Yugoslavia in the 1990s, and then recounts how he came to Timor-Leste with the U.N. Police. He focuses on legal issues of the U.N. policing mission, such as the complex legal traditions of Timor-Leste, the specific prosecuting procedures in Timorese law, and the differences between Kosovo, Bosnia and Timor-Leste. He describes in detail the way in which the UNPOL dealt with a series of student protests in Dili, and with the general problems of gangs, pickpocketing, cultural differences and with bureaucracy and absenteeism within the institution. He also discusses how UNPOL had been mentoring and training the National Police of Timor-Leste. 
Profile

At the time of this interview, Carlos Manuel Lopes Pereira was serving as Dili district deputy commander for the United Nations Police mission in Timor-Leste.  He was a member of the Portuguese police for 20 years. He was the commander of a police unit north of Lisbon, and had previously worked as chief supervisor in Portugal.  He served in U.N. missions in Croatia, Bosnia, Kosovo and  Timor-Leste.

Full Audio File Size
91MB
Full Audio Title
Carlos Manuel Lopes Pereira Interview

Ibrahim Idris

Ref Batch
J
Focus Area(s)
Ref Batch Number
5
Critical Tasks
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Arthur Boutellis
Name
Ibrahim Idris
Interviewee's Position
Police Operations Coordinator and Officer in Charge
Interviewee's Organization
United Nations Mission in Liberia
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Nigerian
Town/City
Monrovia
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract
Ibrahim Idris, the deputy commissioner of the Nigerian police, recounts his experience working in the United Nations mission in Liberia as it relates to police reforms.  He explains how the Liberian National Police was disorganized after the war.  The U.N. Police deactivated the national police, opened a police academy and built more police stations throughout the country. Idris states that the initial focus was on individual capacity development. He describes recruitment, vetting and training processes. He identifies gender challenges, as women tended to be less educated and less represented in the national police. Hence, the U.N. set up a special education program for women who wanted to join the police service. Idris explains that the U.N. later concentrated on institutional development, which involved depoliticization, management and leadership, technical specialization and the creation of legal documents like the Police Act and the duty manual. He also discusses the role of establishing an external oversight body and strengthening Police Community Forums in fostering police accountability.
 
Profile

At the time of this interview, Ibrahim Idris was a United Nations police operations coordinator and the officer in charge of the U.N. mission in Liberia.  He arrived in Liberia in 2004 as a U.N. police adviser. In his homeland of Nigeria, he was the deputy commissioner of police.  He joined the Nigerian police service in 1984 as a cadet officer.  He later served as a crime and traffic officer.  In 1987, he transferred to the Police Mobile Force, a special unit that dealt with riot control and anti-insurgency operations.  He served as the commandant of the Mobile Police Training School from 1998 to 2004.

Full Audio File Size
100MB
Full Audio Title
Idriss Ibriham Interview

Andrew Hughes

Ref Batch
A
Focus Area(s)
Ref Batch Number
29
Critical Tasks
Interviewers
Daniel Scher and Jennifer Widner
Name
Andrew Hughes
Interviewee's Position
Police Adviser to the Department of Peacekeeping Operations
Interviewee's Organization
United Nations
Language
English
Town/City
New York, NY
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract
Andrew Hughes discusses his experiences working on police reform, including as former commissioner of police in Fiji. United Nations policing, says Hughes, has moved considerably into “reform, restructure, [and] rebuilding.” Challenges to effectively building U.N. policing capacity include recruiting quality professionals and gaining member state support for the continued growth of the Department of Peacekeeping Operations. Going forward, he says, it will be important for U.N. police to have more professional posts and a better-defined career structure. Further, as officers come from different contexts, with diverse policing styles and methodologies, Hughes notes that it is important to build a common understanding of what it means to be a police officer in the U.N. context, as well as train officers in a democratic policing model. Hughes concludes by discussing his experiences in Fiji, where he undertook efforts to reform and modernize the police, including by improving information systems, increasing the representation of women in the force, and implementing new community policing measures.  
Profile

At the time of this interview, Andrew Hughes had over 30 years of experience as a police officer, including as a deputy chief police officer in the Australian Capital Territory Police and assistant commissioner in charge of operations for the Australian Federal Police. He served as a liaison officer at the Australian High Commission in London, working with U.K. and European counterparts primarily on issues related to organized crime. Hughes also spent over three years as the commissioner of police in Fiji, prior to the December 2006 coup. On August 9, 2007, United Nations Secretary General Ban-Ki Moon announced Hughes' appointment as police adviser to the U.N., a role that placed him at the head of U.N. Police peacekeeping operations. 

Full Audio File Size
64 MB
Full Audio Title
Andrew Hughes - Full Interview

Ismael Valigy

Ref Batch
N
Focus Area(s)
Ref Batch Number
10
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Amy Mawson
Name
Ismael Valigy
Interviewee's Position
Member
Interviewee's Organization
Mozambique's Central Election Commission, 1994
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Mozambican
Town/City
Maputo
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract
Ismael Valigy talks about his role on Mozambique’s election commission in 1994, when he helped oversee the country’s first free and fair elections after a long civil war.  He begins by providing background information on the challenges that negotiators faced in 1993 while drafting the country’s new electoral law.  He goes on to discuss the pivotal role played by the election commission’s chairman, Brazao Mazula, who managed to build consensus among political adversaries within the commission when it began operating in 1994.  Valigy explains in detail the sequencing of different parts of the electoral process, and how discussions within the election commission evolved.  He talks about some of the obstacles the commission encountered, including difficulties accessing rural areas and a last-minute boycott by the main opposition party.  Valigy also highlights the important role that the international community played in financing and supporting Mozambique’s first elections.
 
Profile

Ismael Valigy began his career at the Ministry of Education in the late 1970s. In 1990 he began working as a diplomat at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Two years later, during the Mozambican peace negotiations that spanned the early 1990s, Valigy was invited to represent the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in a group that the government established to help organize the country’s first election after a 15-year civil war. In late 1993 the ruling party nominated Valigy to serve on the country’s newly established Central Election Commission.  After the elections he continued his career as a diplomat, which included a posting to Washington, D.C. 

Full Audio File Size
79MB
Full Audio Title
Ismael Valigy Interview

Alex Paila

Ref Batch
A
Focus Area(s)
Ref Batch Number
2
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Ashley McCants
Name
Alex Paila
Interviewee's Position
Voter Education and Public Relations Officer
Interviewee's Organization
National Electoral Commission, Sierra Leone
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Sierra Leone
Town/City
Bo District
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

Alex Paila discusses various aspects of national and local election management in Sierra Leone during 2007 and 2008. These areas include the recruitment, training, evaluation and monitoring of election staff; election security; voter registration, audits and curtailment of voter fraud; information dissemination, media relations and enfranchisement of marginalized groups; and financial and logistical constraints and concerns.  He also emphasizes cooperation with community-based civilian organizations as key for information dissemination and higher voter turnouts, and he stresses relations with international organizations to improve workers’ training and monitoring, and secure funding. Paila also speaks about the issues of districting and determining electoral timetables.  Finally, he reflects upon some of the challenges faced by Sierra Leone during the elections in 2007 and 2008, as well as possible hurdles that the country may face in the future.    

Profile

At the time of the interview, Alex Paila was the voter education and public relations officer at the National Electoral Commission in Sierra Leone. Prior to that, he worked as a journalist for various newspapers, including the Ceylon Times and the Spectator. He was also employed, first as a reporter and then as deputy news editor, at the Sierra Leone Broadcast Service. Paila holds a bachelor’s degree in mass communication. 

Full Audio File Size
84 MB
Full Audio Title
Alex Paila - Full Interview

Graham Muir

Ref Batch
B
Focus Area(s)
Ref Batch Number
6
Critical Tasks
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Arthur Boutellis
Name
Graham Muir
Interviewee's Position
Police Commissioner
Interviewee's Organization
United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Canadian
Town/City
Ottawa
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

Graham Muir describes the work of the United Nations Police as part of the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti from 2005 to 2006.  He goes into detail on multiple aspects of the U.N. mission, including the meaning of the U.N. mandate to the police force as opposed to the military. He also discusses the integration of the existing national police force with the U.N. international police force.  Muir also describes the U.N. police role in training and reform and how that role interacted with security.

Profile

Graham Muir was the commissioner of the United Nations Police as part of the U.N. Stabilization Mission in Haiti from 2005 to 2006.  At the time of the interview, he had served 32 years in the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.  Prior to his service in Haiti, Muir served as the director of general learning and development for the RCMP.  He first became involved in international police work in 1993 as a part of the U.N. Protection Force in the former Yugoslavia.  Between 1993 and 2005 Muir was heavily involved with the training of RCMP members for U.N. police service.  He also had been involved with the Pearson Peace Keeping Center for a number of years at the time of the interview.

 
Full Audio File Size
81 MB
Full Audio Title
Graham Muir - Full Interview