training curriculum

Shaping Values for a New Generation: Anti-Corruption Education in Lithuania, 2002–2006

Author
Maya Gainer
Core Challenge
Country of Reform
Abstract

In 2002, Lithuania was struggling to defeat corruption, which had flourished during the Soviet occupation. Once viewed as the key to survival in an administered economy, offering gifts for services had become an accepted social norm. More than a decade after Lithuania regained independence, polling showed that although 77% of Lithuanians considered this form of corruption a problem, few were willing to change behaviors they saw as practical. The country’s recently created anti-corruption agency, the Special Investigation Service, faced the challenge of changing those social expectations. It decided to focus on a new generation of Lithuanians. The Modern Didactics Center, an educational nongovernmental organization, and a dedicated group of teachers stepped in to help the agency work toward the ambitious goal of changing the attitudes of students across the country. The group experimented with a variety of educational approaches both in and outside the classroom, including a curriculum that integrated anti-corruption elements into standard subjects and projects that encouraged students to become local activists. Despite resistance from educators that limited the program’s scale, the effort developed new approaches that illuminated the ethical and practical downsides of corruption for students across the country.

Maya Gainer drafted this case based on interviews conducted in Vilnius, Mažeikiai, and Anykščiai, Lithuania, during February 2015. Case published June 2015.

Ramchrisen Haveria

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Focus Area(s)
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15
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Nicolas Lemay-Hebert
Name
Ramchrisen Haveria
Interviewee's Position
Deputy District Commander
Interviewee's Organization
United Nations Integrated Mission in Timor-Leste
Language
English
Place (Building/Street)
National Police Headquarters
Town/City
Newtown Area, Baucau
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract
Ramchristen Haveria explains the role of the United Nations missions in Timor-Leste and in Kosovo. The main goal of the missions is to assist both countries to establish effective police systems through their mentoring program while working with the local communities. The implementation of the U.N. guidelines in both countries is quite similar. Haveria discusses how the United Nations Police (UNPOL) contributed in the improvement of order in Timor-Leste by teaching the local police ways of implementing and maintaining public order. Some of the challenges they faced in the missions were cultural and language barriers, logistics problems, and hostility in some areas. Haveria also discusses the U.N. internal management and its relationship with the local personnel and the rest of the population.
Profile

At the time of this interview, Ramchristen Haveria was the deputy district commander for the United Nations Integrated Mission in Baucau, Timor-Leste. He previously worked at the regional operations office in the Philippines. Also, he served concurrently as the station chief of the Police Community Relations Office and as the chief of the Internal Affairs Office. He also worked as the chief of the Drug Enforcement Unit and as the assistant chief of the Special Operations group. He was involved in U.N. missions in Timor-Leste and Kosovo. 

Full Audio File Size
56MB
Full Audio Title
Ramchristen Haveria Interview

Aaron Weah

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Focus Area(s)
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17
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Arthur Boutellis
Name
Aaron Weah
Interviewee's Position
National Program Assistant
Interviewee's Organization
International Center for Transitional Justice
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Liberian
Town/City
Monrovia
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract
Aaron Weah, the national program assistant at the International Center for Transitional Justice, talks about police reforms in Liberia. He discusses the deactivation of the former national police and the process of recruitment, vetting and training. He explains that the new police force had a human rights component, and it accounted for equal geographical representation, that is, ethnic representation, to limit politicization.  Weah also identifies the challenges faced when carrying out the reforms, which included the presence of armed ex-combatants, inadequate logistics, police underpayment, lack of public confidence in the police and the issue of fewer women in the force. Based on a study he conducted, Weah advocates learning the best police practices from other countries, for instance, the development of police-military relations, collaboration between the security sector and the civil society, and the amalgamation of security institutions. 
 
Profile

At the time of this interview, Aaron Weah was national program assistant at the International Center for Transitional Justice in Liberia. Before that, he worked for the Center for Democratic Empowerment. Initially, he was a research assistant and later, he became the program associate. He served as the focal person on the Security Sector Working Group, which was a coalition of leading civil-society organizations in Liberia that were committed to research and advocacy with the aim of guiding public policy processes on the reform of security agencies.  As part of the working group, he visited Ghana, Nigeria, Sierra Leone and South Africa to try to identify best practices in police reform. 

Full Audio File Size
50MB
Full Audio Title
Aaron Weah Interview

Carlos Humberto Vargas García

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Focus Area(s)
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3
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Flor Hunt
Name
Carlos Humberto Vargas García
Interviewee's Position
Chief of Studies
Interviewee's Organization
National Academy of Public Security, El Salvador
Language
Spanish
Nationality of Interviewee
El Salvadoran
Place (Building/Street)
National Academy of Public Security
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract
Carlos Humberto Vargas García describes the challenges of establishing a police academy in El Salvador after the Peace Accords of 1992.  He begins by explaining the recruitment and training process, the academic-degree requirements for candidates, and the quota system.  Challenges that he faced in training the police force include lack of resources, internal administrative issues and lingering resentment between the former warring factions.  He describes the usefulness of his training with ICITAP (the International Criminal Investigative Training Assistance Program), the role of donor countries, the training curriculum, community policing and the importance of having an integrated police. He contends that while it is important to receive aid and training from multiple countries,  international donors should not impose preconditions, as they are not familiar with the local reality. 
Profile

At the time of this interview, Carlos Humberto Vargas García was the chief of studies at the National Academy of Public Security in El Salvador, an institution separate from the national police. From 1992 to 1995, he was the first sub-director of the academy, and he trained in the U.S. and Central America with ICITAP, the International Criminal Investigative Training Assistance Program. He also worked in the private sector, in other universities in El Salvador as a professor of engineering, and for the Instituto Salvadoreño de Formación Profesional, which is in charge of non-formal education.

Full Audio File Size
84.5MB
Full Audio Title
Vargas Garcia Interview

Pedro Baltazar González

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Focus Area(s)
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14
Critical Tasks
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Flor Hunt
Name
Pedro Baltazar González
Interviewee's Position
Executive Sub-Director
Interviewee's Organization
National Academy of Public Security, El Salvador
Language
Spanish
Nationality of Interviewee
El Salvadoran
Place (Building/Street)
National Academy of Public Security
Town/City
San Salvador
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

Pedro Baltazar González discusses two aspects related to the activities of the National Academy of Public Security: recruitment strategies, and training and modernization of the police force.  Underscoring the academy’s commitment to recruitment of young people with a vocation for public service—regardless of their initial skills—he describes a successful internal recruitment strategy based on referrals by current officers.  He identifies another media-aware recruitment strategy aimed at young people from eastern El Salvador, who are underrepresented among recruits due to the influence of relatives living abroad. The importance of this strategy is due to the negative impact of relocation of other academy graduates to the east in the absence of any personal ties to the region.  González then discusses a number of initiatives undertaken to modernize the curriculum at the academy, emphasizing a shift from theoretical instruction to practical work. Training addresses other changes in society, such as gender sensitivity issues and new judicial developments to keep up with changing demands from the populace.

Profile

At the time of the interview, Pedro Baltazar González was the executive sub-director of El Salvador's National Academy of Public Security. He began his career in the military, where he served for 10 years, reaching the rank of lieutenant.  After graduating from the academy, he worked as part of the elite forces, hostage-rescue and public-security units.  González served as sub-director general of the National Civil Police until 2006, when he left to work at the academy.

Full Audio File Size
87MB
Full Audio Title
Pedro Baltazar González Interview

Janice Jackson

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Focus Area(s)
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6
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Daniel Scher
Name
Janice Jackson
Interviewee's Position
Educational Psychologist and Anti-Domestic Violence Advocate
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Guyana
Town/City
Georgetown
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

Janice Jackson recounts her dealings with the Guyana National Police in implementing a standardized domestic-violence training program.  Her grassroots approach to identifying the scourge of domestic violence, initiating contact with the police commissioner, and beginning with a "training for trainers" session is instructive in its simplicity.  Jackson discusses her personal encounters with police officers who attended the training sessions and explains the standardization of the training that took place over years.  She emphasizes that the success of any police training program relies on the ownership of the program by the police and offers suggestions as to the financial resource commitment and training rotation for training both new and experienced officers.  She shares thoughts on a reporting system whereby participants can evaluate the training and revisit lessons learned.

Profile

At the time of this interview, Janice Jackson was an educational psychologist who spent her career working on issues of domestic violence, particularly in establishing and implementing domestic-violence training programs with the Guyana National Police.  As the national representative for the Caribbean Association for Feminist Research and Action and a founding member of the Guyana Volunteer Consultancy, she wrote and presented on domestic violence and child abuse, and formed a standardized course of training for the Guyana National Police on awareness of, sensitivity to, and processes for dealing with cases of domestic violence. 

Full Audio File Size
36.8MB
Full Audio Title
Janice Jackson- Full Interview

José Hugo Granadino Mejía

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Focus Area(s)
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7
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Flor Hunt
Name
José Hugo Granadino Mejía
Interviewee's Position
Chief, Professional Training Unit
Interviewee's Organization
National Police of El Salvador
Language
Spanish
Nationality of Interviewee
El Salvadoran
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract
José Hugo Granadino Mejía begins by describing the process of integrating various factions into the police, and he recounts fears (that never materialized) that members of formerly opposing sides would kill each other. He gives details about the curriculum used during police training at the academy, about the entry quota system and about the academic degree requirements for new recruits. He describes in detail the promotion system within the police force and the way in which the police incorporated new ideas and procedures. Relations with donor countries are also discussed, and he gives great importance to the financial and technical support that the police force received from the international community.
Profile

At the time of this interview, José Hugo Granadino Mejía was chief of the professional training unit of the National Police of El Salvador. A lawyer and notary, he in 1993 became one of the first professors at the National Academy of Public Security (Academia Nacional de Seguridad Pública), an institution separate from the National Police. He also served as director of study and later as director general of the academy, and he worked as a professor of law at the Universidad de El Salvador for 25 years and at the Universidad Tecnológica de El Salvador.

Full Audio File Size
117MB
Full Audio Title
Jose Granadino Mejía Interview (Spanish)

Ekaterine Tkeshelashvili

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Focus Area(s)
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8
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Matthew Devlin
Name
Ekaterine Tkeshelashvili
Interviewee's Position
International Security Adviser
Interviewee's Organization
National Security Council, Republic of Georgia
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Georgian
Town/City
Tbilisi
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract
Eka Tkeshelashvili describes police reforms in Georgia. Shortly after it assumed power, the reform government fired the entire traffic police force because of rampant corruption.  Few serious consequences flowed from this decision, though some of those discharged may have joined criminal groups.  She says that the high level of organized crime and paramilitary activity that afflicted Georgia in the early 1990s was more or less under control. In rebuilding the police force, she says, the government recruited candidates with the proper credentials and training, and pay levels were increased significantly. The Police Academy was equipped with more up-to-date facilities and curricula. Prison facilities were reformed and human rights for prisoners gained improved protection.  Police management was decentralized.  External oversight of police activity and of the prisons was improved, and the public was given new ways to report and comment on police performance.
 
Profile
At the time of this interview, Eka Tkeshelashvili was the international security adviser to Georgia's National Security Council. For the last half of 2008, she served as Georgia’s foreign minister. Earlier that year, she was prosecutor general. In 2006 and 2007, she headed the Tbilisi Court of Appeals.  In 2007, she was minister of justice. She first joined the government in 2005 and served as deputy minister of interior. She graduated from the Faculty of International Law and International Relations at Tbilisi State University in 1999.
Full Audio File Size
41MB
Full Audio Title
Eka Tkeshelashvili Interview

Mike McCormack

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Focus Area(s)
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7
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Daniel Scher
Name
Mike McCormack
Interviewee's Position
Co-President
Interviewee's Organization
Guyana Human Rights Association
Language
English
Place (Building/Street)
Guyana Human Rights Association headquarters
Town/City
Georgetown
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

Mike McCormack, co-president of the Guyana Human Rights Association at the time of this interview, discusses many challenges to protecting human rights in Guyana.  With more than 30 years' experience working on human rights issues in the country, he is able to chart progress and setbacks with a deep knowledge base.  McCormack reflects on the extra-judicial killings of the past and present, the drug-related incidents that have become more common, and tensions between the human rights community and the police.  McCormack also touches upon the ethnic representation of the police and perceptions among the Afro-Guyanese and Indo-Guyanese communities as well as the disparities between the rural and urban police units.  He draws a distinct line between the prison system and the police as an organization.

Profile

At the time of this interview, Mike McCormack was the co-president of the Guyana Human Rights Association.  Born in the U.K., he lived and worked in the Caribbean, Central America and South America since the late 1960s, serving as Oxfam's Andean regional director and working on human rights issues in Chile and Argentina. He returned to Guyana and was involved with the GHRA since its founding in 1979.  Through the GHRA, he championed political, economic and social rights.

Full Audio File Size
91.4MB
Full Audio Title
Mike McCormack- Full Interview

José Humberto Posada Sánchez

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Focus Area(s)
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8
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Flor Hunt
Name
José Humberto Posada Sánchez
Interviewee's Position
Legal Adviser to the Office of General Management
Interviewee's Organization
National Police of El Salvador
Language
Spanish
Nationality of Interviewee
El Salvadoran
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract
José Humberto Posada Sánchez begins by describing his work with police legislation in El Salvador and the internal structure of the National Police of El Salvador (Policía Nacional Civil), its rank and promotion system and the initial quota system.  He talks about the demilitarization of the police force and the creation and integration of the new civil police force.  He also discusses crime prevention and investigation, policing and human rights, problems of funding and the role of donor countries in training with community policing.  Efforts taken to reduce corruption, internal divisions and police brutality are also referenced.
Profile

At the time of this interview, José Humberto Posada Sánchez was the legal adviser to the Office of General Management of the National Police of El Salvador (Policía Nacional Civil).  This post involved providing legal counsel, writing legislation and  implementing national legislation into the internal policy of the national police.  He previously served as a member of Congress, ambassador to Guatemala, member of the Central American Parliament and adviser to the vice minister of citizen security after the Sub-Department for Citizen Security was created in 2002.  He also worked on the Ley Orgánica de la Polícia Nacional Civil of 2002, national legislation that sought to strengthen the police force.

Full Audio File Size
114.8MB
Full Audio Title
Jose Posada Sanchez