service delivery

Seizing Opportunities, Strengthening Synergies: Lima Frames a Collective Strategy to Advance Early Childhood Development, 2019–2021

Author
Miguelángel Verde
Focus Area(s)
Country of Reform
Abstract

Jorge Muñoz had long championed efforts to improve the lives of children in his relatively well-off district of Peru’s capital city, Lima. In 2019, he had a chance to take some of his ideas to scale. As newly elected mayor of metropolitan Lima, a city of almost 11 million, he oversaw basic services for about a third of the country’s population. At the time, a fifth of Peru’s population lived in poverty, and one in three people lived in informal settlements, where supporting families to give infants and toddlers a healthy start on life presented many challenges. The mayor directed the metropolitan government’s Social Development Department and a small interdisciplinary team of architects and social scientists (1) to identify lessons learned from pilot projects, (2) to establish new ways of assisting infants and young children, and (3) to coordinate to get the job done. When the COVID-19 pandemic broke out in the capital city in 2020, the metropolitan government and its team continued this work, using some of their newly created systems to respond to the larger challenge of caring for vulnerable populations during months of emergency lockdown measures. The national government labeled Lima’s program, which engaged residents in project development, as a promising model for helping local governments implement a countrywide strategy for the promotion of early childhood development.

Miguelángel Verde drafted this case study with the help of Tyler McBrien based on interviews conducted in Lima, Peru, during 2020 and 2021. Case published August 2021. The Bernard van Leer Foundation supported this case study to foster early-stage policy learning.

 

 

Bridging the Divide: Coalition Building for Early Childhood Development in Istanbul, 2016 – 2020

Author
Leon Schreiber and Gordon LaForge
Focus Area(s)
Country of Reform
Abstract

By the mid-2010s, Istanbul, the biggest city in Turkey, had developed a reputation as a bustling concrete jungle notoriously unfriendly to the 1.2 million children aged four years and younger who lived there. As part of a decade-long construction boom, multistory skyscrapers increasingly replaced green spaces and parks throughout the city. But such insufficient consideration for the developmental needs of young children was not confined to the design of public and urban spaces: in many Istanbul homes, parents worked hard to put food on the table and had little time to consider how to give their young children the best possible start in life. In February 2016, a coalition of policy research organizations and private enterprises launched an ambitious effort to persuade officials in Istanbul’s 39 districts to begin taking the needs of young children seriously. The group drew on help from a network of prominent Turkish universities and partnered with four district municipalities that agreed to join a program called Istanbul95, supported by the Bernard van Leer Foundation, a Dutch foundation. The group created a digital-mapping tool to help locate vulnerable children, conducted regular home visits to support hundreds of families, and designed new prototypes for child-friendly public spaces. This effort to embed principles of early childhood development into the work of Turkish local governments passed a milestone when, in 2019, the major metropolitan area governments of Istanbul and İzmir also agreed to join, a key step toward reaching many more children.

Leon Schreiber and Gordon LaForge drafted this case study based on interviews conducted in Istanbul in June and July 2020. Case published November 2020. The Bernard van Leer Foundation supported this case study to foster early-stage policy learning.

 

Isaac Adewole

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K
Focus Area(s)
Ref Batch Number
1
Critical Tasks
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Leon Schreiber
Name
Isaac Adewole
Interviewee's Position
Former Prime Minister of Health, Nigeria
Language
Emglish
Nationality of Interviewee
Nigerian
Town/City
Abuja
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

In his interview with ISS, Issac Adewole discusses his term as Nigeria’s health minister (November 2015-May 2019), especially his role in the Basic Health Care Provision Fund. He explains how his ministry worked with others to create a transparent financial management system. He also discusses how the project was implemented throughout Nigeria and the challenges of designing a program involving many central government and state agencies in Nigeria’s federal system of government.

Profile

Dr. Isaac Adewole is a professor of gynecology and obstetrics at the University of Ibadan and the former minister of health of Nigeria. He served as part of the Cabinet of President Muhammadu Buhari from 2015 to 2019. As minister of health, he took a leading role in the implementation of the Basic Health Care Provision Fund. Prior to his appointment, he served as vice chancellor of the University of Ibadan.

City Hall Embraces Early Childhood Development: Reaching an Underserved Population in Tel Aviv, 2016 – 2019

Author
Gordon LaForge
Focus Area(s)
Core Challenge
Country of Reform
Abstract

In the early 2010s in Tel Aviv, parents with children under four years of age were mostly on their own when it came to finding the child care services and support they needed. Although the city was an economic and technology powerhouse, the government showed little interest in providing for the youngest residents. Public concern about the cost and quality of day care and a shortage of opportunities to ensure infants and toddlers thrived drew parents into the streets. In 2016, the city began to respond. Municipal departments expanded services, launched a digital platform for parents, and renovated public spaces to suit children three years old and younger. By 2019, early childhood development had become a government priority and part of the mayor’s reelection campaign platform, although scaling services to some of the poorest neighborhoods remained a challenge.

Gordon LaForge drafted this case study based on interviews conducted in Tel Aviv in May 2019. The Bernard van Leer Foundation sponsored this case study to support learning in its Urban95 initiative. Savvas Verdis and Philipp Rode of the London School of Economics served as independent reviewers. Case published August 2019. 

Victoria Esber

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B
Focus Area(s)
Ref Batch Number
19
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Maya Gainer
Name
Victoria Esber
Interviewee's Position
Director, Office for Strategy Management,
Interviewee's Organization
Philippines Civil Service Commission
Language
English
Town/City
Quezon
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

In this interview, Vicoria Esber discusses the development and implementation of the Report Card Survey and the Anti-Red Tape Act in the Philippine Civil Service Commission (CSC). She begins by recounting the various challenges for the program, from engaging Filipino clients to building trust with agencies, as well as the Commission's solutions for these obstacles. She also describes the measures they took to help agencies meet CSC standards, such as incentivizing compliance with good governance conditions and restructuring their Citizen's Charters. Finally, she explains the various networks and partnerships that helped the CSC design and conduct its surveys. 

Profile

At the time of this interview, Victoria Esber was the head of the Office for Strategy Management in the Philippine Civil Service Commission, where she oversaw strategy, implementation, and research efforts. Previously, she conducted economic research with the Philippines's National Economic and Development Authority. She holds a master's degree in National Security from the National Defense College of the Philippines and a bachelor's degree in Political Science from the University of the Philippines. 

Full Audio File Size
92 MB
Full Audio Title
Victoria Esber Interview

Land Rights in the Township: Building Incremental Tenure in Cape Town, South Africa, 2009–2016

Author
Leon Schreiber
Country of Reform
Abstract

In 2009, South Africa’s second-most populous metropolitan area, Cape Town, adopted a new strategy to usher the rule of law into shantytowns that had sprung up on its outskirts, on municipal land. Without legal property rights, most of the residents of those communities were vulnerable to eviction and had access to neither municipal services nor home addresses they could use to obtain cell phone contracts or other basic goods. Lacking both the space to relocate households and the money to build enough new houses, the city partnered with a program called Violence Prevention through Urban Upgrading to pilot an in situ settlement upgrade that allowed people to remain in their homes. Through an incremental tenure approach, the city issued occupancy certificates that recognized residents’ rights to remain on the land, that protected against arbitrary eviction, and that laid the groundwork for eventual access to the services enjoyed by city residents living in legal housing. The pilot project focused on Monwabisi Park, a community of about 25,000 on the southeastern edge of Cape Town. Beginning with a full enumeration of land, structures, and occupants, the project helped construct a community register, issue occupancy certificates, and extend electric power throughout the area. By November 2016, the first phase of the project had been completed, and hundreds of residents visited the community registration office every month to update their details. Using their occupancy certificates, residents could obtain cell phones, register their children in schools, receive medication from the health department, and open furniture store accounts. However, the second phase of the project—rezoning and physically upgrading the settlement—stalled in late 2016, as Cape Town officials wrestled with the basic question of how to install water and sewerage infrastructure in situ without moving any households. Even with that pause, though, Monwabisi Park offered important lessons for other cities and countries about how to provide poorer, more-transient citizens greater stability and financial access.

Lessons Learned

  • In a complex urban environment, community-led surveying and enumeration cannot be rushed. Time is required to build trust with and among different groups in the community and ensure accuracy.
  • Projects whose greatest impact will only materialize in the future need broad support to survive political turnover. Emphasis on the long-term benefits of settlement upgrading can help reduce resistance from an incoming administration concerned about supporting an outgoing mayor’s pet project.
  • Visible administration—having the project team physically working in the settlement on a regular basis—was key to maintaining an organized tenure administration system.
  • Securing upfront agreement with city engineers on infrastructure installations plans is vital. Failure to approve a design plan after the program has launched frustrates residents and undermines the progress already made.
  • Taking steps to help new holders of occupancy certificates understand their rights and the consequences of off-registry transfers should be a component of every incremental tenure program.

Leon Schreiber drafted this case study with Professor Michael Barry of the University of Calgary based on interviews conducted in Cape Town and Johannesburg, in July and August 2016. Case published February 2017.

A 2017 workshop, Driving Change, Securing Tenure, profiled recent initiatives to strengthen tenure security and reform land registration systems in seven countries: South AfricaCanadaJamaica, Kyrgyzstan, Mozambique, Australia and Tanzania.

Watch the video of Kathryn Ewing - Director, Violence Prevention through Urban Upgrading

Remaking a Neglected Megacity: A Civic Transformation in Lagos State, 1999-2012

Author
Gabriel Kuris
Focus Area(s)
Country of Reform
Abstract

Lagos State began the twenty-first century as a boomtown crippled by crime, traffic, blight, and corruption. A regional economic hub and burgeoning state of 13.4 million people, the megalopolis had a global reputation for government dysfunction. Two successively elected governors, Bola Tinubu and Babatunde Fashola, worked in tandem to set the state on a new course. Beginning in 1999, their administrations overhauled city governance, raised new revenues, improved security and sanitation, reduced traffic, expanded infrastructure and transit, and attracted global investment. By following through on their promises to constituents and forging a new civic contract between Lagos and its taxpayers, Tinubu and Fashola laid the foundations of a functional, livable, and sustainable metropolis.
 
Gabriel Kuris drafted this case study based on interviews conducted by Graeme Blair in Lagos, Nigeria, in August 2009 and by Kuris in Lagos, in October 2011 and in Providence, Rhode Island, in November 2012. Case published July 2014.

Associated Interview(s):  Babatunde Fashola, Bola Tinubu

Rebuilding the Civil Service After War: Rwanda After the Genocide, 1998-2009

Author
David Hausman
Focus Area(s)
Country of Reform
Abstract
After the 1994 genocide, Rwanda’s government ministries, desperate for staff, went on a hiring spree. By 1998, the civil service had grown, but it consumed too much of the country’s limited revenues and lacked many of the critical skills essential for effective service delivery. Between 1998 and 2009, the Rwandan Ministry of Public Service and Labor led reforms that slashed the number of staff in central ministries by about 90%, tripled salaries for those who remained and decentralized basic service-delivery functions. Personnel cuts occurred in two major waves, one in 1999 and another in 2006. In 2006, the Ministry of Local Government rehired some civil servants fired under these reforms to staff district administrations. Those local governments began to deliver services, ranging from the issue of passports to road construction, that the government had earlier directed from Kigali, Rwanda’s capital. Following retrenchment and decentralization, the government set up a Public Service Commission in 2007 to standardize and oversee recruitment throughout the civil service. Results of the reforms were ambiguous. In early 2010, civil servants reported that the changes had improved overall staff quality but that ministries had too few people to carry out essential functions. They also said decentralization had improved service delivery in some cases but had overtaxed local administrations in others. There was some agreement, however, that the Public Service Commission recruitment system was effectively based on merit. 
 

David Hausman drafted this case study on the basis of interviews conducted in Kigali, Rwanda, in March 2010. Case published in July 2011.  Two separate cases, “The Promise of Imihigo: Decentralized Service Delivery in Rwanda, 2006-2010” and Government Through Mobilization: Restoring Order After Rwanda’s 1994 Genocide," provide additional insight into the processes of restoring and restructuring governance in insecure areas.

Associated Interview(s):  Angelina Muganza, Protais Musoni

Sticking to the Numbers: Performance Monitoring in South Africa, 2009-2011

Author
Jonathan (Yoni) Friedman
Country of Reform
Abstract

President Jacob Zuma took office in 2009 amid a wave of demonstrations by South Africans protesting the government’s poor record in delivering basic services. During the 15 years since the end of apartheid, South Africa had made strides in extending basic services to previously underserved communities, but frustration with the pace of progress boiled over in early 2009. During his first month in office, Zuma established a Ministry of Performance Monitoring and Evaluation to improve service delivery by ministries. Two key officials in the new ministry, Ketso Gordhan and Ronette Engela, identified three major reasons for the government’s poor performance: a lack of accountability at the upper levels of ministries, decentralized and often ad hoc policy planning, and poor interministerial coordination. They devised a system that reorganized ministries around 12 policy goals and set data-based performance targets for ministers and departments. They succeeded in focusing departments on setting measurable performance targets, but as political support waned, the sustainability of the system came into doubt. This case study offers insights on building the accountability of managers in the civil service and improving the quality of policy planning by setting measurable performance targets.

 
Jonathan Friedman drafted this case study on the basis of interviews conducted in Johannesburg and Pretoria, South Africa, in March and April 2011. Case published August 2011.

Restructuring Service Delivery: Johannesburg, South Africa, 1996-2001

Author
Michael Woldemariam, Jennifer Widner, and Laura Bacon
Focus Area(s)
Critical Tasks
Country of Reform
Abstract
In mid-1997, Johannesburg faced a fiscal meltdown. Management problems, low tax compliance and a fragmented system of municipal budgeting and expenditure put the city’s budget in deficit. As Johannesburg’s core services deteriorated, a series of moves by the provincial government paved the way for robust reforms designed to ease the city’s financial problems. Under the leadership of newly appointed City Manager Ketso Gordhan, transformation manager Pascal Moloi, and a team of reformers, the city embarked on “Igoli 2002,” an effort to make municipal service provision more cost-effective by corporatizing its service providers. Although the new structure greatly improved the financial position of the city, the need to redistribute resources, coupled with a narrow tax base, led to recentralization of decision making in some areas and caused the experiment to depart from other “New Public Management” initiatives in other parts of the world. Setting up a workable regulatory structure also proved difficult. This case study describes the work of Gordhan and his team, demonstrating how the long-term success of municipal reforms depends not only on design but also on implementation.  
 
Michael Woldemariam, Jennifer Widner, and Laura Bacon compiled this case study based on interviews conducted in Johannesburg, South Africa, in March 2011 and August 2012. Samuel Scott provided research assistance. Case published September 2012.