Reform sequencing

Rachel Neild

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15
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Daniel Scher
Name
Rachel Neild
Interviewee's Position
Senior Adviser, Open Society Justice Initiative
Interviewee's Organization
Open Society Institute
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
British/American
Town/City
Washington, DC
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

Rachel Neild describes police reform programs in Haiti, El Salvador and other parts of the world. She discusses extensively the challenges of effective recruitment and vetting, particularly in the presence of poor information. She goes on to discuss the process of integrating former combatants into police forces, noting that while starting police reform from scratch may have been necessary in Haiti, this need not be the case in other contexts if former forces are properly vetted and held to the same standards and qualifications as the rest of the police force. Neild goes on to discuss some of the challenges associated with the effective operationalization of the police force, including force composition, professionalization and community involvement. She concludes that policing is a “two-way street” that involves both developing and building trust of the police and ensuring that people “understand the nature of law and rights and responsibilities.”    

Profile

At the time of this interview, Rachel Neild was senior adviser on ethnic profiling and police reform with the Equality and Citizenship Program of the Open Society Justice Initiative. She previously worked with the Washington Office on Latin America, where she was involved in monitoring the Salvadoran peace accords and demilitarization policy in Haiti. She also worked with the Andean Commission of Jurists, Peru, and the Inter-American Institute for Human Rights, Costa Rica. Neild has done consultancies on human rights and policing for the Inter-American Development Bank, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the U.S. Agency for International Development, and Rights and Democracy, among other organizations.

Full Audio File Size
97 MB
Full Audio Title
Rachel Nelid - Full Interview

Deependra Bickram Thapa

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Focus Area(s)
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7
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Andrew Schalkwyk
Name
Deependra Bickram Thapa
Interviewee's Position
Secretary of Education
Interviewee's Organization
Ministry of Education and Sport, Nepal
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Nepali
Place (Building/Street)
Ministry of Education and Sport
Town/City
Kathmandu
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract
Deependra Thapa describes the successes and failures of civil service reform efforts in Nepal before, during and after civil conflict. He reports successes in downsizing the bureaucracy and combating corruption. A Web-based personnel information system was installed. However, its use was inhibited by the resistance to change within the bureaucracy, which persisted in doing most transactions on paper. Because of a lack of support from top leadership, installation of a performance management system, with pay and promotion dependent upon outputs, was stymied for similar reasons. When Parliament was suspended during the civil conflict, training for parliamentarians and senior civil servants and officials also came to a halt. Thapa expresses concern that tensions under the coalition government at the time of the interview meant that little attention and few resources would be paid to achieve the ambitious civil service reform goals the government originally set for itself in 1999.
Profile

At the time of this interview, Deependra Thapa was Nepal's secretary of education, a position he had held for less than a year. Earlier, he was secretary of the Ministry of General Administration, where he had served for two years as national program officer in charge of the civil service reform program.  Since entering the civil service in 1997, he also served in the ministries of tourism, environment, operations, transportation and labor and in the office of the prime minister.

Full Audio File Size
76MB
Full Audio Title
Deepndra Thapa Interview

Knut Walter

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11
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Flor Hunt
Name
Knut Walter
Interviewee's Position
President
Interviewee's Organization
Accreditation Commission of El Salvador
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
El Salvadoran
Town/City
San Salvador
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

Knut Walter gives a sociological and historical account of the militarization of Salvadoran political life, even under civilian rule, culminating in the civil war.  He describes the peace accords and ensuing reforms as a process of demilitarization of the police and reassignment of the armed forces to a very limited national security role.  He praises the design of the National Civil Police and its commitment to training, high levels of education and curricular emphasis on human rights. Walter identifies a need to improve investigations, given the low national sentencing rates coupled with the highest homicide rates in Latin America.  However, he rejects the argument that the army was any more effective in containing violence in decades past through zero-tolerance policies.  He attributes the high homicide rates to structural causes that must be addressed, including widespread availability of weapons, ambiguous property rights and social vulnerability brought on by migration.  Walter then discusses the proliferation of private security firms in El Salvador as a result of the culture of violence during the war years and as a possible strategy for integration of ex-combatants into the work force, but he denies any conflict of spheres of competence with the National Civil Police.

Profile

At the time of this interview, Knut Walter was president of the Accreditation Commission of El Salvador.  He earned a doctorate in history and held academic posts at Jose Simeon Cañas Central American University for 23 years.  He was a fellow at the New York Social Science Research Council, and he served as director of graduate programs at the Latin American University of Social Sciences in Guatemala.

Full Audio File Size
51MB
Full Audio Title
Knut Walter Interview

Motlepu Marhakhe

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3
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Daniel Scher
Name
Motlepu Marhakhe
Interviewee's Position
Deputy Director
Interviewee's Organization
Office of the Inspector of Police
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Lesotho
Place (Building/Street)
Police Inspectorate
Town/City
Maseru
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

Motlepu Marhakhe discusses the various entities comprising Lesotho’s police force. He focuses on the Police Inspectorate, Lesotho Mounted Police Service (LMPS) and the Police Authority who oversees both agencies. Lesotho’s police service was relatively new at the time of the interview, having been created only five years prior. Marhakhe says that the nature of policing in Lesotho has changed over time. The focus of the police has increasingly been towards community-oriented policing on account of democratic influences in Lesotho. In much of the interview, Marhakhe discusses the relationship between the main Police Authority, and the LMPS and Police Inspectorate. Marhakhe explains that the Minister does not propose policies, but rather approves or denies proposals made by the LMPS. Most of the responsibilities of the police force in Lesotho fall on the shoulders of those working in the Police Inspectorate, not the Police Authority (Minister). When given a mandate by the Police Authority, Marhakhe said that both the Police Inspectorate and LMPS regularly collaborate and discuss to form strategies.    

Case Study:  Reining in a Rogue Agency: Police Reform in Lesotho, 1997-2010

Profile

At the time of this interview, Marhakhe was deputy inspector at the Police Inspectorate. This agency is separate from the Lesotho Mounted Police Service (LMPS). Marhakhe had previously served as assistant commissioner of the police for LMPS. On account of his prior experience in LMPS, he was later recruited to work in the Police Inspectorate, which oversees the policing service in Lesotho.

Full Audio File Size
25 MB
Full Audio Title
Motlepu Marhakhe Interview

Robert Perito

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17
Critical Tasks
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Gordon Peake
Name
Robert Perito
Interviewee's Position
Senior Program Officer
Interviewee's Organization
United States Institute of Peace
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
American
Town/City
Washington, DC
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

Robert Perito, a senior program officer with the United States Institute of Peace, recounts his experiences in international police recruitment and training initiatives, including in Haiti, Kosovo, Bosnia and Timor-Leste.  He notes that while effective vetting in the post-conflict context is difficult, it is critical that there be systems to determine who can get into the police. Vetting should be seen as an ongoing process. He notes that in most cases police should be recruited as individuals rather than as entities, and he cautions that security problems are generally not solved simply by integrating militia or illegally armed groups into the official security force. Perito goes on to discuss lessons learned from police training programs in Kosovo and Haiti. This includes the need to adapt training programs to the local context, needs, and skill capacity, in addition to the importance of integrating field-based training with in-class basic skills training. He states that it is imperative to build the capacity of the government structures tasked with effectively managing, supporting and administering the new police force. Training new recruits in mass, he argues, is not effective if the body that governs them is corrupt and lacks necessary capacity. Finally, he notes that while community policing can have a role in police reform, it should not necessarily come at the expense of critical police training. 

Case Studies:  Building the Police Service in a Security Vacuum: International Efforts in Kosovo, 1999-2011 and Building Civilian Police Capacity: Post-Conflict Liberia, 2003-2011

Profile
At the time of this interview, Robert M. Perito directed the United States Institute of Peace's Security Sector Governance Initiative under the Centers of Innovation. He also was a senior program officer in the Center for Post-Conflict Peace and Stability Operations, where he directed the Haiti and the Peacekeeping Lessons Learned projects. Perito came to USIP in 2001 as a senior fellow in the Jennings Randolph Fellowship program.  Before joining USIP, he served as deputy director of the International Criminal Investigative Training Assistance Program at the U.S. Department of Justice. In that role, he was responsible for providing policy guidance and program direction for U.S. police programs in Bosnia, Kosovo, and Timor-Leste. Perito previously was a career foreign service officer with the U.S. Department of State, retiring with the rank of minister counselor.  Perito became involved in international police reform in 1993 when, following the so-called Blackhawk Down incident in Somalia, he worked on the creation of a new Somali police training program. Following U.S. intervention in Haiti in 1994, he led an effort to create a police training program in support of a viable Haitian National Police. Perito taught at Princeton, American, and George Mason universities and earned a master’s in peace operations policy from George Mason.
Full Audio File Size
57 MB
Full Audio Title
Robert Perito - Full Interview

Krishna Devkota

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1
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Andrew Schalkwyk
Name
Krishna Devkota
Interviewee's Position
Training Adviser, Revenue Administration Report Project
Interviewee's Organization
Danish International Development Agency
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Nepali
Town/City
Kathmandu
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

Krishna Devkota provides a history of numerous attempts to reform Nepal’s civil service since the 1950s. All of them, including the most recent donor-instigated initiative, have either not been implemented, or only partially implemented. As a contracted consultant to international donors funding the most recent effort, Devkota describes both the aim and design of the reform effort and his opinion about why implementation of most of the reform efforts failed.  He cites political and civil conflict and tensions in the country, a lack of political will or commitment to the reforms by top leaders, the short time horizons of donors, corruption that diverted donor funds from their intended use and resistance to change by civil servants because they did not sense any possibility for reward or promotion.    

Profile
At the time of this interview, Krishna Devkota was training adviser to the Danish International Development Agency’s Revenue Administration Report Project. While he pursued his university training in the early 1970s, he worked at the Agricultural Project Services Center, a Nepali autonomous semi-government consulting organization. In 2000, he became a freelance consultant to international donor organizations in Nepal, including the United Kingdom’s Department for International Development, the Asian Development Bank, the U.N.’s Food and Agricultural Organization and the U.N. Development Programme.
Full Audio File Size
71MB
Full Audio Title
Krishna Devkota Interview

Kartlos Kipiani

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3
Critical Tasks
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Andrew Schalkwyk
Name
Kartlos Kipiani
Interviewee's Position
Chief of Staff
Interviewee's Organization
Constitutional Court of Georgia
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Georgian
Town/City
Tbilisi
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract
Kartlos Kipiani, chief of staff of the Constitutional Court of Georgia at the time of the interview, discusses his time as head of the Public Service Bureau of Georgia and the efforts he was involved in to implement civil service reform projects.  The projects, which were wide-ranging, included efforts to improve technical skills of civil servants and to create a single information-management system across the ministries.  Kipiani also explains the role donors such as the World Bank played in setting the reform agenda.  He discusses the difficulty of dealing with poorly defined and sometimes overlapping government bureaucracies.  He touches on the question of decentralized versus centralized public-administration reform, and he explains why he thinks centralization of reform concepts is important.  He also discusses the difficulties he ran into with attempts to create one codification of job descriptions across all ministries.
 
Profile

At the time of this interview, Kartlos Kipiani was the chief of staff of the Constitutional Court of Georgia, a position he held from 2006 until March 2010.  In April 2010 he became deputy head of the Government Chancellery.  He previously served as secretary of the Public Service Council and acting head of the Public Service Bureau.  Kipiani also headed the Division for Civil Service Reform under the previous government in 2000.  He worked on various programs as a coordinator for the United Nations Development Programme.  He first began working for the government in the Office of State Chancellery in 1995.  Kipiani earned a master's degree in public policy from Japan’s National Graduate Institute for Public Policy Studies at Saitama University in 2003.

Full Audio File Size
59MB
Full Audio Title
Karlos Kipiani Interview

David Beretti

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1
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Michael Woldemariam
Name
David Beretti
Interviewee's Position
Executive Director of Corporate Services
Interviewee's Organization
City of Cape Town, South Africa
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
South African
Town/City
Cape Town
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

David Beretti recounts his experiences working with the city of Cape Town. While Beretti had a 38-year experience with the city government at the time, he focuses on his body of work as the executive director of corporate services. He begins his discussion by detailing the efforts to reform the many municipalities of Cape Town down to one streamlined unit. He discusses the many challenges the government of Cape Town faced in instituting this reform. First, he recounts discussion surrounding the sequence of reforms. He details the efforts to work with the collective bargaining organizations that originally opposed the reforms. Faced with a short deadline of only six months, he explains the innovations that were created in order to address redundant positions that existed among the pervious seven municipalities while avoiding serious retrenchment. Beretti also explains the outside accountability measures used to ensure the cooperation and satisfaction of the City of Cape Town’s employees. This included a large-scale survey and performance monitoring system for the reform process. He concludes his detailed discussion with information on how diversity was handled in the recruitment and promotion process.    

Case Study:  Municipal Turnaround in Cape Town, South Africa, 2006-2009

Profile

At the time of the interview, David Beretti was the executive director of corporate services for the City of Cape Town, having worked for the city for 38 years. Beretti previously held positions in the finance, engineering, planning and human resources departments of the City of Cape Town. In his current position, he is responsible for the full human resource functions for 25,000 employees.  He also manages the legal services, information systems and technology departments. During his time as executive director of corporate services, Beretti oversaw the reformation of Cape Town from an original 39 municipalities in to one streamlined city government.    

Full Audio File Size
187 MB
Full Audio Title
David Beretti - Full Interview

Benjamin Cestoni

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2
Critical Tasks
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Flor Hunt
Name
Benjamin Cestoni
Interviewee's Position
Acting Director
Interviewee's Organization
National Academy for Public Security, El Salvador
Language
Spanish
Nationality of Interviewee
El Salvadoran
Town/City
San Salvador
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

Benjamin Cestoni describes the recruitment procedures employed by El Salvador's National Academy for Public Security.  Every three months, the process begins with a national recruitment announcement, a sequence of five qualifying exams that apply appropriate standards for both male and female potential cadets, personal interviews, and a vetting process that involves background checks within the recruits’ communities.  Cestoni identifies the financial burden associated with foregoing salaried employment while at the academy as a challenge for both recruitment and completion of training.  The effectiveness of each recruitment round depends on the agricultural seasons, and there is a high drop-out rate due to cadets finding paid employment.  The main incentive to join the academy is the prospect of long-term job stability, but Cestoni says the promotion system must be improved.  He underscores the success of recruitment of women, whose enrollment increased from 4% to 7%.  He identifies areas of present and potential coordination with the National Civil Police.  First, a recent curricular shift at the academy favors hands-on, skill-intensive training over theoretical instruction, which necessitates the cooperation of the police.  Second, there is constant feedback between the two institutions, so that training workshops are developed in response to the needs of acting officers.  This process resulted in great improvement in the area of investigations.  Nonetheless, Cestoni points to a need for coordinated follow-up on students after graduation, to consolidate assessment of each officer’s career progress.  Cestoni attributes academy modernization to the support offered by the international community, especially from Spain, France and the United States.  His most important suggestion for cost-efficient cooperation is for donors to emphasize deployment of trainers to the host country over inviting trainees to donor countries.

Profile

At the time of this interview, Benjamin Cestoni was the acting director of the National Academy for Public Security in El Salvador, a position he had held since 2006.  A lawyer by training, he worked at the Attorney General’s Office for 12 years and was appointed as the executive director of the Commission for Human Rights under President Álvaro Magaña in 1982.  He subsequently served as the presidential commissioner for human eights during the administrations of presidents José Napoleón Duarte and Alfredo Cristiani.  His political career began when he was appointed as President Armando Calderón’s personal secretary.  Cestoni was then elected as deputy to the Central American Parliament, and served as minister of transportation.

Full Audio File Size
79 MB
Full Audio Title
Benjamin Cestoni Interview

Fred Mufulukye

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9
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Daniel Scher
Name
Fred Mufulukye
Interviewee's Position
Director General for Territorial Administration and Governance
Interviewee's Organization
Ministry of Local Government, Rwanda
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Rwandan
Town/City
Kigali
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

Fred Mufulukye describes the territorial administrative reforms implemented in Rwanda in 2005-06 that reduced the number of districts to 30 from 106. Local leaders are now elected. Pay for district staff was raised and recruitment became based on qualifications and merit. At the instigation of the president, the government initiated the imihigo process to inspire district performance and achievement of outcomes in governance, economic development, and social development. Based on a cultural tradition from the days of chiefdoms, the process requires that each district develop specific goals and priorities from the bottom up each year. Achievement of these goals and priorities is evaluated and scored each year by the government, motivating each district to out-compete other districts in performance. The program and results in each district are widely publicized in order to engage the citizenry in setting priorities and judging results.    

Case Study:  The Promise of Imihigo: Decentralized Service Delivery in Rwanda, 2006-2010 and Government Through Mobilization: Restoring Order After Rwanda's 1994 Genocide

Profile

At the time of this interview, Fred Mufulukye was director general for territorial administration and governance in the Ministry of Local Government of Rwanda. He joined the ministry in 2004.

Full Audio File Size
54MB
Full Audio Title
Fred Mufulukye Interview