pay reform

Bernard Zeneli

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D
Focus Area(s)
Ref Batch Number
14
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Jona Repishti
Name
Bernard Zeneli
Interviewee's Position
Manager
Interviewee's Organization
Brain Gain Program, Albania
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Albanian
Town/City
Tirana
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract
Bernard Zeneli describes his experiences as the manager of the Brain Gain program in Albania as well as his perspectives on the history of civil service reform.  The Brain Gain program seeks to identify areas from which expertise is readily available, particularly among the Albanian diaspora, and attempts to bring these people into the public sector.  The government plays a leading role in the project, which is supported by the United Nations Development Programme.  Zeneli outlines the process of applying for a position through the program and some of the benefits received by those with advanced degrees from abroad.  He describes the Soros Program that preceded Brain Gain as well as some of the potential problems created by providing various financial incentives to attract those educated abroad.  He also recounts some of the initial difficulties faced when establishing the program.  There was support from the highest levels, but the program met opposition from some of the lower levels of the administration.  Zeneli characterizes the relationship between the government and the U.N. and Brain Gain’s cooperation with civil society organizations as quite positive.
Profile

At the time of this interview, Bernard Zeneli was the manager of the Brain Gain program, an initiative of the Albanian government supported by the United Nations Development Programme that encouraged skilled professionals to return to the country and contribute to its development.  Previously, he was head of the Department of Political Science and Public Administration at the University of Pristina in Kosovo, where he developed courses related to policy making, comparative politics, government and international relations.  He also taught at Northeastern University, the University of Tirana and South Eastern European University in Tetovo, Macedonia.

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Audio Available by Request

Gregory Ellis

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N
Focus Area(s)
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1
Country of Reform
Interviewers
David Hausman
Name
Gregory Ellis
Interviewee's Position
Senior Operations Officer, Fragile and Conflict-Affected Countries Group
Interviewee's Organization
World Bank
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Australian
Place (Building/Street)
World Bank
Town/City
Washington, D.C.
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract
Gregory Ellis, drawing on his experience in reform programs in various countries, discusses general themes in civil reform service across various contexts, especially from the point of view of donor organizations. He emphasizes the need for understanding the political economy of countries undergoing reform, and the need for understanding indigenous customs. He places immense import on the citizen-state relationship in fragile states, and discusses how a state should be involved in service delivery. Ellis especially emphasizes deference to the host nation’s priorities in creating a reform agenda. In discussing capacity building in the Solomon Islands, Ellis reflects upon the dichotomy between service delivery by donors and the sometimes deleterious effect of technical assistance on long-term capacity building. He goes on to discuss restructuring organizations and combating patronage through professional associations, decentralized recruitment and autonomous decision making. Ellis emphasizes especially the role of local consultation, continuity in visionary leadership and long-term commitment in achieving success in fragile states.
Profile

At the time of this interview, Gregory Ellis had been a senior operations officer at the Fragile and Conflict-Affected Countries Group at the World Bank for about a year. His parent organization was the Australian Agency for International Development. He was posted by AusAID in the Solomon Islands between 2005 and 2007, as deputy program manager for the Machinery of Government Program, part of the Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands. Prior to that, between 2000 and 2002 he held a posting in Timor-Leste after the withdrawal of Indonesian forces. 

Full Audio File Size
71MB
Full Audio Title
Gregory Ellis Interview

Policy Leaps and Implementation Obstacles: Civil Service Reform in Vietnam, 1998-2009

Author
David Hausman
Focus Area(s)
Country of Reform
Abstract

This case study offers an account of civil service reform efforts in Vietnam between 1998 and 2009, which yielded substantial formal policy changes but produced only modest practical changes to Vietnam's public employment system.  Before 1998, the Vietnamese civil service lacked standardized competitive recruitment and promotion procedures, offered salaries that did not cover the cost of living, provided insufficient and often irrelevant training, and included ministries that duplicated functions.  By 2009, the Ministry of Home Affairs had standardized and then devolved recruitment and promotion exams to line ministries and provinces, doubled civil service wages while giving agencies autonomy to raise wages further, expanded the enrollment of the National Academy of Public Administration by a factor of 20, and merged six ministries.  Nonetheless, government and donor officials reported that recruitment continued to be driven often by corruption, that even doubled salaries often did not cover the cost of living, that training was rarely relevant to civil servants' work, and that tasks continued to be duplicated in most of the merged ministries.  In order to concentrate on human resource management reforms, this case study does not consider other aspects of the Public Administration Reform agenda, including, for example, the institution of so-called one-stop shops designed to simplify administrative procedures.  Because public sector reform remained a sensitive topic in Vietnam in 2009, many interviewees asked that their names be withheld.

David Hausman drafted this case study on the basis of interviews conducted in Hanoi, Vietnam, in August and September 2009. 

Associated Interview(s):  Clay Wescott

Selina Mkony

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E
Focus Area(s)
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6
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Andrew Schalkwyk
Name
Selina Mkony
Interviewee's Position
Program Coordinator
Interviewee's Organization
Public Service Management Office, Tanzania
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Tanzanian
Town/City
Dar es Salaam
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

Selina Mkony draws upon her extensive experience to discuss the goals of reform in Tanzania and some of the related challenges and issues. She describes the procedures and standards used in the system of recruitment and how this changed over the period of the reform program. She lists some of the criteria used in promotions, including things like seniority, education, skills, and performance management. She underscores the government efforts to move away from nepotism and toward greater transparency in hiring. She also describes the process of and challenges facing performance management and evaluation. Mkony characterizes the sequencing and management of the reform process and relates how the reform process fits in with the goals of streamlining government. She highlights the importance of leadership in controlling and managing reforms. She also touches upon a number of other aspects of civil service reform, including the organizational structure of the civil service, pay policy, training programs, and capacity building. She describes the retrenchment process in the 1990s, ways the government has improved the working environment in order to retain quality people, and the importance of local cultural divisions or language differences and how they impact service delivery.    

Profile

At the time of this interview, Selina Mkony was program coordinator at the Public Service Management Office in Tanzania. She joined the Civil Service Department in 1994 as an accountant and was later assigned administrative duties as well. The Civil Service Reform Program lasted from 1994 to 1998, when a new program was developed to focus on institution performance management systems and making the public service efficient. She continued on as an accountant and administrator before a new phase began in 2007. At that time, she became the program coordinator. 

Full Audio File Size
73 MB
Full Audio Title
Selina Mkony - Full Interview

Joseph Rugumyamheto

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E
Focus Area(s)
Ref Batch Number
10
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Andrew Schalkwyk
Name
Joseph Rugumyamheto
Interviewee's Position
Former Permanent Secretary for Public Service Management
Interviewee's Organization
Tanzania
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Tanzanian
Town/City
Dar es Salaam
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
Yes
Abstract
Joseph Rugumyamheto describes sweeping human resource capacity-building efforts undertaken to transform the Tanzanian civil service from dysfunction to effectiveness. He details an array of efforts intended to supplement broader economic liberalization by downsizing while enhancing the skills, competencies and attitudes of civil servants. He explains how the role of the civil service was redefined, rationalized and focused via targeted retrenchment and strategic re-organization of departments. Additionally, he unravels New Public Management-style reforms that promoted meritocratic recruitment, introduced an appraisal system based on performance targets, recalibrated career paths and realigned payment systems. He also explains attempts to facilitate the quality of civil servants and attract skills through the formation of a Public Service Commission, needs assessments and training programs, pay raises and the overall image makeover of the civil service into a functional organization.
 
Profile

Joseph Rugumyamheto worked in several capacities in the Tanzanian civil service for 30 years, ultimately serving for five years as permanent secretary of public service management in the President’s Office. He was responsible for the management of all civil servants in the Tanzanian government in terms of human resources and development. He previously served as chairman of the Government Board of the Eastern and Southern African Management Institute and chairman of the Board of Global Development Learning Centre Network. Rugumyamheto retired in 2006, and at the time of the interview he was chairman of the board and a director of Douglas Lake Minerals Ltd., a joint-venture company holding mineral concession rights in Tanzania. In April 2006, he was awarded the Jit Gill Memorial Award for Outstanding Public Service by the World Bank.

Full Audio File Size
78 MB
Full Audio Title
Joseph Rugumyamheto - Full Interview

From Central Planning to Performance Contracts, New Public Management in Mongolia, 1996-2009

Author
David Hausman
Focus Area(s)
Country of Reform
Abstract

In 1996, Mongolia’s newly elected government, led by a group of market-oriented politicians, decided to reform civil service on the New Zealand New Public Management model, which required managers to sign contracts promising results in exchange for freedom to spend their budgets as they chose. The reforms were intended to modernize a civil service that, while legally changed since democratization in 1990, retained many of the characteristics, and staff, of the previous Soviet-modeled system. Reformers confronted a lack of robust accountability procedures, salary arrears and a lack of central control over local expenditures. The Democratic Coalition government, led by an economic team strongly committed to market-oriented reforms, settled on the contract-based New Public Management model as a way of preserving agency-level decentralization while making agencies’ managers directly accountable to the national government. When enacted, the system met with difficulty at every stage: in specifying outputs for agencies and individuals, in measuring performance, and in rewarding good performance. By 2009, thirteen years after the reforms started, officials reported that the contracts remained largely a formality.

David Hausman wrote this case study based on interviews conducted in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, in December 2009. 

Associated Interview(s):  Mendsaikhany Enkhsaikhan

Charles Sokile

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E
Focus Area(s)
Ref Batch Number
12
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Andrew Schalkwyk
Name
Charles Sokile
Interviewee's Position
Public Sector Adviser
Interviewee's Organization
U.K. Department for International Development
Language
English
Town/City
Dar es Salaam
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract
Charles Sokile recounts DFID’s role in financing and advising the Public Sector Reform Program in Tanzania. He describes some of the challenges faced in the first two phases of reform, including issues of harmonization, capacity, and linkages between the reforms and the President’s Office. He notes that the government made progress in attaining milestones it set for itself. Tanzania, in his opinion, was very successful in sustaining reforms. Sokile goes into detail about a number of elements of reform, including merit recruitment and promotions, performance and quality cycle management, and pay policy. He points out that the notion of pay policy has a lot to do with the compression and decompression of the pay ratios and challenges involved in getting these ratios correct. He discusses two major initiatives designed to use pay policy to attract civil servants to underserved areas and how the government has changed its policy with regard to allowances. He provides general thoughts on how the public has reacted to changes in pay for civil servants and details some of the pressures with regards to the total wage bill. He concludes by highlighting the importance of coordinating reforms and political awareness.
Profile

At the time of this interview, Charles Sokile was the public sector adviser for the Tanzania office of the U.K.'s Department for International Development.

Full Audio File Size
43 MB
Full Audio Title
Charles Sokile - Full Interview

Filloreta Kodra

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D
Focus Area(s)
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1
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Jona Repishti
Name
Filloreta Kodra
Interviewee's Position
Head
Interviewee's Organization
Department of Public Administration, Albania
Language
Albanian
Nationality of Interviewee
Albanian
Town/City
Tirana
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract
Filloreta Kodra discusses Albanian public administration reform. She outlines the difficulties in transitioning the civil service from that of an authoritarian regime to a democratic one. Kodra details the process of reworking an inadequate legal framework and her strategy when working with donors whose ideas conflict. She touches on the challenges of a government where corruption, patronage, and authoritarian tendencies can undermine reform efforts. Kodra also focuses on the role of salary negotiation for civil servants in reform and how to attract better candidates to public administration.
Profile

At the time of this interview, Filloreta Kodra was the head of the Department of Public Administration in Albania. She was responsible for transitioning and reforming the civil service after the collapse of many state institutions in 1997. She had extensive experience with the civil service in Albania through her work within the Ministry of Labor as a specialist and was involved in the creation of the National Council of Labor, an advisory body to the Ministry of Labor. Kodra began working in public administration in 1981. She also served as the president of the Institute for Studies on Good Governance and Sustainable Development in Albania. She later became the vice minister of Labor, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities.

Full Audio File Size
105 MB
Full Audio Title
Filloreta Kodra - Full Interview

George Yambesi

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E
Focus Area(s)
Ref Batch Number
15
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Andrew Schalkwyk
Name
George Yambesi
Interviewee's Position
Permanent Secretary, Public Service Management
Interviewee's Organization
President's Office, Tanzania
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Tanzanian
Town/City
Dar es Salaam
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

George Yambesi draws upon his experience in the President’s Office for Public Service Management to trace the history of civil service reform in Tanzania.  He describes some of the challenges and goals involved in implementing reforms. The major theme of these reforms has been improving performance results and accountability.  Within this, there has been a focus on policy development, systems for appraising performance, improving human resource management, and leadership development.  Yambesi notes that one of the main motivations for reform was a public outcry for better services.  He goes into great detail about retrenchment and staff size, delineating specific goals set and the methods used in achieving those goals.  He also describes changes to pay policies, performance management systems, and in the promotion and recruitment systems at some length.  He speaks about the effect of the shift from secretive to open performance evaluations and stresses the importance of strategic thinking as the basis for annual plans and budgets.  He also discusses training programs and capacity building.  Finally, while he acknowledges the role played by international donors in establishing the reform agenda, he maintains that the reform agenda was driven largely by Tanzania itself.

Case Study:  Creating an Affordable Public Service: Tanzania, 1995-1998

Profile

At the time of this interview, George Yambesi was the permanent secretary in the President’s Office for Public Service Management in Tanzania.  His involvement with the reform program in Tanzania began in 1993.  He joined the program as a national expert on redeployment and subsequently worked as a national expert on capacity building for ministries, departments, agencies and other institutions.  He then served as director of policy development, responsible for coordinating the implementation of the Public Service Reform Program in Tanzania.  Immediately before being named permanent secretary, he served as deputy permanent secretary. 

Full Audio File Size
67 MB
Full Audio Title
George Yambesi - Full Interview

Bola Tinubu

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D
Focus Area(s)
Ref Batch Number
13
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Graeme Blair
Name
Bola Tinubu
Interviewee's Position
Former Governor
Interviewee's Organization
State of Lagos, Nigeria
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Nigerian
Town/City
Lagos
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
Yes
Abstract
Bola Tinubu, former governor of the state of Lagos in Nigeria, reflects on his administration’s successes in reforming the civil service, reducing corruption, and improving state infrastructure.  He details the process he went through to reform the state government, from the waste management system to financial mismanagement within the public sector.  Tinubu lays out the steps he took to improve incentives for civil servants, including salary increases, improving quality and hygiene of working environments, and teaching investment principles and how to work toward home ownership.  His payroll-system reforms removed thousands of ghost workers from the system.  Tinubu explains how he applied principles he learned in the corporate world to the public sector reform effort.  Tinubu also details the steps he took in removing endemic corruption in the public sector, which included eliminating cash payments to the government.  He discusses how he brought back expatriates to improve the hospitals and transportation system.  He also touches on the difficulties in working with a federal government that sometimes undermined reform efforts.
 
Profile
Bola Tinubu served as governor of the state of Lagos from 1999 to 2007, during which he initiated reforms that improved the efficiency of the civil service and improved infrastructure.  He served from 1992 to 1993 as a senator until the end of the Nigerian Third Republic.  Prior to entering politics he worked in the private sector for companies including Arthur Andersen and Deloitte, Haskins, & Sells.  He was also an executive of Mobil Oil Nigeria.  After Tinubu left politics, he became active in negotiations to unite Nigeria’s opposition parties and in pushing for electoral reforms.   He earned a bachelor’s degree from Chicago State University in business administration in 1979.  He holds the tribal aristocratic title of asiwaju, given to him by the Oba of Lagos, who holds a ceremonial position as traditional leader of the state of Lagos.
Full Audio File Size
71 MB
Full Audio Title
Bola Tinubu - Full Interview