patronage

Lisa Cleary

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N
Focus Area(s)
Ref Batch Number
3
Country of Reform
Interviewers
David Hausman
Name
Lisa Cleary
Interviewee's Position
Human Resource Adviser
Interviewee's Organization
Public Service Improvement Program, Solomon Islands
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Australian
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

Lisa Cleary talks about the role of the Public Service Improvement Program and her role as human resource adviser to develop a human resource strategy for the Solomon Islands.  First, she conducted a human resource survey across every ministry in order to develop a baseline for future work the PSIP would do to put a new payroll system in place.  Then she mapped workforce budgeting to prepare a strategic plan to change the way people are recruited and hired in the workforce and to develop a collective bargaining agreement.  She talks about problems such as patronage appointments, the length of time between recruitment and processing an appointment, the inequities in salary structure, the problems in service delivery and the problem of accelerated promotions.  She also talks about devising an administrative procedure toolkit for civil service positions as a way to achieve change in the processes to make them transparent and fair.

Case Study:  Starting from Scratch in Recruitment and Training: Solomon Islands, 2004-2009

Profile

At the time of this interview, Lisa Cleary was the human resource adviser for the Public Service Improvement Program in the Solomon Islands . She served previously as human resource adviser for the correctional service in the Solomon Islands. Before that, she worked with human resources in the correctional service in Queensland, Australia.

Full Audio File Size
76MB
Full Audio Title
Lisa Cleary Interview

Samuel Kofi Woods

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E
Focus Area(s)
Ref Batch Number
9
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Graeme Blair
Name
Samuel Kofi Woods
Interviewee's Position
Minister of Public Works
Interviewee's Organization
Liberian Cabinet
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Liberian
Town/City
Monrovia
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract
In this interview, Samuel Kofi Woods describes his experiences with institutional reform in Liberia, detailing his work for the country first as a youthful activist and later a government employee. Drawing upon his time as labor minister, Woods describes the measures he took to improve accountability and transparency within the ministry, emphasizing the need to lead by example and hold true to principles of equality and fairness. Speaking of the day-to-day running of the ministry, Woods delves into the measures taken to address its human resource capacity. Among other things, he outlines the ‘emergency employment program’ and ‘merit-based recruitment policies’ that were instituted. Woods also elaborates on the tasks he undertook upon his appointment as Minister of Public Works, providing insight into reform strategies and citing actions he took to deal with deep-rooted issues such as corruption and patronage. He suggests that for reform to be sustainable, it is the capacity of institutions that needs to be strengthened, and not just that of individuals. He recognizes, however, that for a reform effort to be successful, support from both high-level government officials and the general populace is crucial. Woods concludes by noting that there will always be challenges faced by those seeking reform, but to be successful, one must learn to adapt to the problems faced and not lose heart. 
Profile

At the time of this interview, Samuel Kofi Woods was the Liberian Minister of Public Works, having been appointed to the position in 2009. A youth activist since the age of 11, Woods went on to become a well-known champion of human rights, receiving the Reebok’s Human Rights Award in 1994 and the Benerementi Medal in 1999. Woods established the Justice and Peace Commission of the Catholic Church in Liberia in November 1991, and played a leading role in documenting and publicizing human rights abuses during the 1989-1997 civil war. His efforts in this regard included the creation of the Forefront Organization in 1994, an international advocacy and support network. Woods also set up the Foundation for International Liberty, an international non-governmental human rights organization with offices in Sierra Leone and Liberia. In 2006, Woods became the Minister of Labor under President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf. He held this position until his appointment to the Ministry of Public Works in 2009. 

Full Audio File Size
74 MB
Full Audio Title
Samuel Woods - Full Interview

Kim Sedara

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K
Ref Batch Number
2
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Rohan Mukherjee
Name
Kim Sedara
Interviewee's Position
Senior Researcher
Interviewee's Organization
Cambodia Development Resource Institute
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Cambodian
Town/City
Phnom Penh
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract
Kim Sedara comments on international donors who try to import reforms and models of governance into Cambodia without understanding the need to take context into account. He suggests that the task is not to build a system from scratch, but to fix and cure the problems of existing institutions. Referring to the challenges of institution building in his home country, he notes that Cambodia “is still very much in a post-conflict stage.” From the early 1970s to 2009, Cambodia went through at least six major political regimes, leading to numerous “institutional interruptions,” making it very difficult for the state to be responsive and accountable to its citizens, he says. The first challenge was to provide security; the second, food; the third, re-integration of formerly warring factions. He states that a major problem had been a shortage of professional talent, and an educational system poorly designed to correct it. He believes that the rule of law can be achieved only if it is internalized by the population, and that takes time. Sedara says corruption cannot be controlled until people are able to feed themselves and their families from their legitimate earnings. He suggests targeting four major reform areas: courts, the military, administration and public finance. Decentralization and de-concentration are part of administrative reform. Citing a World Bank report, Sedara says that 45 percent of post-conflict societies fall back into civil war within five years of emerging from conflict. Cambodia avoided this fate, and Sedara says he is hopeful for the future.
Profile

At the time of this interview, Kim Sedara was a senior researcher at the Cambodia Development Resource Institute, an independent think tank in Phnom Penh. In 1994, he received a degree in archeology in Cambodia and another from the University of Hawaii in 1996. He won a 1998 Fulbright scholarship in 1998 and degrees in economics and political anthropology from the University of Illinois and Stanford. He earned a Ph.D. from Gothenburg University in Sweden in 2005. Sedara has written widely on issues of post-conflict reconstruction, elections, decentralization and deconcentration, and governance in Cambodia.

Full Audio File Size
43MB
Full Audio Title
Kim Sedara Interview

Guiseppe Ferrante

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B
Focus Area(s)
Ref Batch Number
4
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Rushda Majeed & Laura Bacon
Name
Guiseppe Ferrante
Interviewee's Position
Commissioner of Productive Activities and of Tourism
Interviewee's Organization
Municipality of Palermo
Language
English/Italian
Nationality of Interviewee
Italian
Town/City
Palermo
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

In this interview, Giuseppe Ferrante reflects on his time spent serving the Municipality of Palermo from 1995-2000 under Mayor Leoluca Orlando. He begins by explaining his personal background in the private sector prior to his appointment to the city government and describing the pervasive presence of the mafia in the city government and culture prior to the transformation of the 1990s. Ferrante discusses Mayor Orlando’s strategies to change Palermo. Orlando hired honest and hard-working employees, often from outside of political circles, as in the case of Ferrante, in order to eliminate the unprofessional culture that marked past administrations. Popular faith in the government and pride in the city soon returned to Palermo. Ferrante explains how his commercial, security, and traffic initiatives contributed to a turnaround in downtown Palermo, creating a safe and lively pedestrian area full of shops, markets, restaurants, bars, and cafés. His familiarity with the private sector as an entrepreneur informed his successful business-friendly policies. He also recounts his efforts to improve Palermo’s relationships with its sister cities around the world. Then he discusses the responsibilities of and working relationships among the members of the City Council before reflecting on the time of the Orlando administration. Although he says his term brought about positive change, he expresses disappointment with the governments that followed Orlando’s team.

Case Studies:  Palermo Renaissance Part 1: Rebuilding Civic Identity and Reclaiming a City from the Mafia in Italy, 1993-2000;  Palermo Renaissance Part 2: Reforming City Hall, 1993-2000; and Palermo Renaissance Part 3: Strengthening Municipal Services, 1993-2000

Profile

Giuseppe Ferrante served the Municipality of Palermo under Mayor Leoluca Orlando from March 1995 until April 2000. He worked primarily as both Commissioner of Productive Activities and of Tourism; however, his responsibilities were many and varied. He was also in charge of the municipal police department and information technology for the city administration, worked with the municipal service companies, and served more briefly as Commissioner of Traffic. Prior to his appointment to the city government, Ferrante worked exclusively in the private sector. He managed a clothing company with 200 employees and headed the Sicilian and youth chapters of the Confindustria, an Italian confederation of industrialists. In 1985, Ferrante started a Sicilian business magazine.

 

Full Audio Title
Audio Available Upon Request

Yim Sovann

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K
Ref Batch Number
12
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Rohan Mukherjee
Name
Yim Sovann
Interviewee's Position
Member of Parliament
Interviewee's Organization
Cambodia
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Cambodian
Town/City
Phnom Penh
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract
Yim Sovann describes an initiative to reform Cambodia’s Finance Ministry and curb corruption in 1993-94. He says that when he joined the ministry as an assistant to the new minister, the treasury was bankrupt and inflation was running as high as 300%. Civil servants had not been paid for as long as four months, and there was no public finance law, no law regarding revenue collection or expenditures, no inventory of state assets and no anti-corruption law. The first task was to draft an entire complement of financial reform laws based upon past practices and outside experience. The greatest resistance came from high government officials engaged in non-transparent privatization of state assets and military groups engaged in illegal businesses and smuggling. He says that the ministry was successful in improving revenue collection and paying civil servants and soldiers. The minister’s resulting credibility enabled him to deal with soldiers to combat smuggling and corruption and to encourage ministry employees to enter positions and win promotions based upon merit. Corruption in the ministry virtually disappeared, he says. However, without top political support, such reforms could not endure. Many gains were lost after administrations changed.
 
Profile

At the time of this interview, Yim Sovann was serving his third term as a member of Parliament for Phnom Penh. He was an assistant to the minister of finance during 1993-94, after which he studied in Japan for a degree in economics. He was elected to Parliament in 1998 after he had returned to Cambodia. 

Full Audio File Size
57MB
Full Audio Title
Yim Sovann Interview

Policy Leaps and Implementation Obstacles: Civil Service Reform in Vietnam, 1998-2009

Author
David Hausman
Focus Area(s)
Country of Reform
Abstract

This case study offers an account of civil service reform efforts in Vietnam between 1998 and 2009, which yielded substantial formal policy changes but produced only modest practical changes to Vietnam's public employment system.  Before 1998, the Vietnamese civil service lacked standardized competitive recruitment and promotion procedures, offered salaries that did not cover the cost of living, provided insufficient and often irrelevant training, and included ministries that duplicated functions.  By 2009, the Ministry of Home Affairs had standardized and then devolved recruitment and promotion exams to line ministries and provinces, doubled civil service wages while giving agencies autonomy to raise wages further, expanded the enrollment of the National Academy of Public Administration by a factor of 20, and merged six ministries.  Nonetheless, government and donor officials reported that recruitment continued to be driven often by corruption, that even doubled salaries often did not cover the cost of living, that training was rarely relevant to civil servants' work, and that tasks continued to be duplicated in most of the merged ministries.  In order to concentrate on human resource management reforms, this case study does not consider other aspects of the Public Administration Reform agenda, including, for example, the institution of so-called one-stop shops designed to simplify administrative procedures.  Because public sector reform remained a sensitive topic in Vietnam in 2009, many interviewees asked that their names be withheld.

David Hausman drafted this case study on the basis of interviews conducted in Hanoi, Vietnam, in August and September 2009. 

Associated Interview(s):  Clay Wescott

Fatbardh Kadilli

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D
Focus Area(s)
Ref Batch Number
13
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Jona Repishti
Name
Fatbardh Kadilli
Interviewee's Position
Adviser to the Prime Minister
Interviewee's Organization
Albania
Language
Albanian
Nationality of Interviewee
Albanian
Town/City
Tirana
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

Fatbardh Kadilli, adviser to Albania's prime minister on anti-corruption policies, presents his views on the efforts to reform public administration. He says that the country adopted Western models for reform legislation and implementation, but that breaking old habits acquired under the former communist system was difficult. He believes that protecting civil servants from arbitrary firing impeded efforts to modernize the government because so many administrators were still in positions where they could not perform. He describes the difficulties of trying to institute a successful performance management system because Albania had few leaders who understand management. He reports on initiatives to downsize and consolidate ministries and to install Internet-based systems to reduce corruption in procurement, licensing and a number of other public services.

Profile

At the time of this interview, Fatbardh Kadilli was adviser to the prime minister on anti-corruption matters, a position he had held since 2005.  Prior to that he served for four years as a consultant on anti-corruption with an American firm financed by the U.S. Agency for International Development. Prior to that he led a program on integrated services for children at UNICEF. From 1998 to 2005, he was also a consultant with the Institute for Contemporary Studies, where, among other tasks, he advised the government on decentralization reforms. Earlier, he served in the State Secretariat for Local Governance, where he was in charge of the Refugee Office and drafted the law on asylum seekers.

Full Audio File Size
78 MB
Full Audio Title
Fatbardh Kadilli - Full Interview

Conjuring and Consolidating a Turnaround: Governance in Bogotá, 1992-2003 (Disponible en español)

Author
Matthew Devlin, Sebastian Chaskel
Country of Reform
Translations
Abstract

A once proud city, Bogotá was on the verge of ruin by the late 1980s. Its government was corrupt and dysfunctional, and the Colombian city regularly ranked among the worst places in the world in which to live. In 1986, then-president and former Bogotá Mayor Virgilio Barco lamented that “of that booming city that I governed, today all that is left is an urbanized anarchy, tremendous chaos, immense disorder, a colossal mess.” Beginning in 1992, however, Bogotá enjoyed a string of mayors who succeeded in turning the city around. The first of these mayors, Jaime Castro (1992-1994), fought to establish the financial and political framework that would empower the mayor’s office to function as a nucleus of reform. Castro’s successor, Antanas Mockus (1995-1997 and 2001-2003), built on that legacy, consolidating gains in the face of entrenched opposition on the city council and bringing tangible benefits to the population in the form of exemplary public-service delivery. By 2002, the United Nations had selected Bogotá as a “model city” to be emulated across Latin America and by early 2010, Mockus had emerged as a front-runner in Colombia’s presidential elections.

Matthew Devlin and Sebastian Chaskel drafted this case study based on interviews conducted in Colombia during October and November 2009.

Associated Interview(s):  Jaime Castro Castro,  Liliana CaballeroMaria Isabel Patiño


GENERAR Y CONSOLIDAR UNA VUELTA DE PÁGINA: GOBERNABILIDAD EN BOGOTÁ, 1992-2003

SINOPSIS: La otrora ciudad imponente, hacia fines de los años '80 Bogotá se encontraba al borde de la ruina. El gobierno distrital se caracterizaba por la corrupción y el mal funcionamiento, y la capital colombiana frecuentemente se ganaba un lugar en el ranking mundial de los peores lugares para vivir. En 1986, el antiguo alcalde de la capital y por ese entonces presidente Virgilio Barco se lamentó, "De la ciudad vibrante que yo goberné, hoy sólo queda una anarquía urbana, un caos tremendo, un desorden inmenso, un desastre colosal." Sin embargo, a partir de 1992 Bogotá tuvo la suerte de tener una serie de alcaldes que consiguieron pasar la página en la historia de la ciudad. El primero de aquellos alcaldes, Jaime Castro (1992-94), luchó para establecer la infraestructura financiera y política que le otorgaría a la Alcaldía el poder para funcionar como un núcleo de reforma. El sucesor de Castro, Antanas Mockus (1995-97 y 2001-03), siguió construyendo sobre los cimientos legados por su predecesor, y así consolidó victorias a pesar de la oposición profundamente arraigada del Concejo de la Ciudad, trayendo beneficios tangibles para la población en la forma de mejoras en la prestación de servicios públicos. Al llegar el año 2002, las Naciones Unidas habían seleccionado a Bogotá como una ciudad modelo a ser emulada a través de Latinoamérica, y para comienzos del año 2010, Mockus había surgido como un candidato formidable a la presidencia colombiana. Matthew Devlin y Sebastian Chaskel redactaron este estudio practico basado en entrevistas que se llevaron a cabo en Colombia, en octubre y noviembre del 2009. El caso fue publicado en diciembre del 2010. Melina Meneguin-Layerenza tradujo este estudio en febrero de 2013.

Matthew Devlin y Sebastian Chaskel redactaron este estudio practico basado en entrevistas que se llevaron a cabo en Colombia, en octubre y noviembre del 2009. El caso fue publicado en diciembre del 2010. Melina Meneguin-Layerenza tradujo este estudio en febrero de 2013.
 

Amos Sawyer

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E
Ref Batch Number
6
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Graeme Blair
Name
Amos Sawyer
Interviewee's Position
Chairman
Interviewee's Organization
Governance Commission, Liberia
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Liberian
Town/City
Monrovia
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract
Amos Sawyer discusses the Liberian experience with decentralization, land reform and public sector reform. He speaks about further complications, including the aftermath of war and the role of property in exacerbating it; the inefficacy of, and lack of trust in, the judicial department; the unavailability of representative opinion polls; and the relationship between property holdings and women’s empowerment. Sawyer begins by explaining the goals of land reform in the country, and the tortuous process of building support for land reform among the populace, nongovernmental organizations, international donors and the cabinet, and building credibility for the government. Sawyer reflects on public-sector reform and the challenges of coordinating reform throughout the government, especially in relation to patronage and ghost workers. He speaks about corruption reform in the police, judiciary and bureaucracy through the Anti-Corruption Commission, and its effect on institutional memory. Sawyer also reflects in detail about the role of international donor agencies, and the need for contextually sound goals, implemented with patience through cooperation instead of myopic adherence to narrow goals. Lastly, he discusses the role of spoilers in the Liberian reform process, and emphasizes the necessity for visionary leadership.
Profile

At the time of the interview, Amos Sawyer was chairman of the Governance Commission in Liberia, which was set up under the Comprehensive Peace Agreement of 2003. He was the president of the Interim Government of National Unity in Liberia between 1990 and 1994. Sawyer earned a doctoral degree in political science from Northwestern University, and after his presidency was a research scholar at Indiana University in Bloomington. He also wrote two books: Beyond Plunder: Toward Democratic Government in Liberia, and The Emergence of Autocracy in Liberia: Tragedy and Challenge

Full Audio File Size
88 MB
Full Audio Title
Amos Sawyer - Full Interview

Building Trust and Promoting Accountability: Jesse Robredo and Naga City, Philippines, 1988-1998

Author
Michael Scharff
Core Challenge
Country of Reform
Abstract
When Jesse Robredo became mayor of Naga City in 1988, he faced a population disenchanted with the corrupt and closeted manner in which previous city administrations functioned. The once-thriving Philippine city was broke. Despite Naga’s landlocked location in one of the most impoverished regions of the country, Robredo had a plan to revitalize the city. He first focused on closing the budget deficit and answered citizens’ demands to crack down on illegal activities that had benefited previous administrations. Next, to promote transparency and accountability in government, he took steps to increase citizen participation in government functions.  By the end of his nine years as mayor—term limits prevented him from running again—Robredo had closed the budget gap, and Naga had gained international recognition as a model of effective and transparent local government.  
 

Michael Scharff drafted this case study on the basis of interviews conducted in Naga City and Manila, Philippines, in March 2011.  Case published July 2011.

Associated Interview(s):  Jesse Robredo