media relations

Kayode Idowu

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X
Focus Area(s)
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3
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Gabriel Kuris and Rahmane Idrissa
Name
Kayode Idowu
Interviewee's Position
Chief Press Secretary
Interviewee's Organization
Attahiru Jega
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

In this interview, Kayode Idowu describes his role as Chief Press Secretary for Attahiru Jega, chairman of the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC). He explains the transparency and accountability that Jega has brought to INEC through changes such as maintaining open, honest communication with the media and taking responsibility for problems as they arise. For instance, Idowu recounts the delay in the April 2ndelections, explaining that INEC chose to postpone elections rather than use non-official result sheets that were not secure.  He also comments on how the rise of social media has changed media relations, making both INEC and the conventional media more accountable. Idowu discusses his experiences handling the public relations surrounding election violence, distinguishing the security aspects from the electoral aspects of the issue. In response to election violence, INEC initiated cooperative efforts with security agencies; Idowu describes this process as well as INEC’s communication and cooperation with other groups, including Parties, civil society, and the State Electoral Committees. Throughout the interview, Idowu explains how his background in print media helps him understand and relate to the media with whom he works. 

Profile

At the time of this interview Kayode Idowu was serving as the Chief Press Secretary to Attahiru Jega, the chairman of the commission. Jega recruited Idowu in July of 2010 from his post as deputy editor of The Nation. Idowu previously served as editor of the SaturdayPunch, deputy editor of the SaturdayThis Day, and chief sub editor ofThe Guardian. He is also a former Saturday editor of the now-defunct The Comet.

 

Lucas Kusima

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T
Focus Area(s)
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5
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Daniel Scher
Name
Lucas Kusima
Interviewee's Position
Senior Assistant Commissioner of Police
Interviewee's Organization
Tanzania
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Tanzanian
Town/City
Dar es Salaam
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

Lucas Kusima talks about reforms in policing prompted by the change in Tanzania's government leadership in 2005. He describes the shortfalls in recruitment of local police and the need to change training methods to improve professionalism and a greater understanding of human rights. He talks about the difficulties of modernizing equipment and information technologies when funding must come from the communities the police serve. Kusima discusses the medium-term strategic plan for reform that is part of the national vision for development by 2025 and the methods used to compile a reform document that is inclusive and builds citizen confidence. He describes the unexpected obstacles of trying to bring about reform such as the need to amend laws and the resistance to change by the police force. Financing remains the biggest challenge, he says. The foremost achievement was building the confidence of the public, and he talks about ways public confidence in community policing is measured.  

Case Study: Restoring Police Service with a Community Vision: Tanzania, 2006-2009

Profile

At the time of this interview, Lucas Kusima was assistant commissioner of police in Tanzania. He previously served as senior superintendent of police.

Full Audio File Size
79MB
Full Audio Title
Lucas Kusima Interview

Pedro Baltazar González

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M
Focus Area(s)
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14
Critical Tasks
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Flor Hunt
Name
Pedro Baltazar González
Interviewee's Position
Executive Sub-Director
Interviewee's Organization
National Academy of Public Security, El Salvador
Language
Spanish
Nationality of Interviewee
El Salvadoran
Place (Building/Street)
National Academy of Public Security
Town/City
San Salvador
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

Pedro Baltazar González discusses two aspects related to the activities of the National Academy of Public Security: recruitment strategies, and training and modernization of the police force.  Underscoring the academy’s commitment to recruitment of young people with a vocation for public service—regardless of their initial skills—he describes a successful internal recruitment strategy based on referrals by current officers.  He identifies another media-aware recruitment strategy aimed at young people from eastern El Salvador, who are underrepresented among recruits due to the influence of relatives living abroad. The importance of this strategy is due to the negative impact of relocation of other academy graduates to the east in the absence of any personal ties to the region.  González then discusses a number of initiatives undertaken to modernize the curriculum at the academy, emphasizing a shift from theoretical instruction to practical work. Training addresses other changes in society, such as gender sensitivity issues and new judicial developments to keep up with changing demands from the populace.

Profile

At the time of the interview, Pedro Baltazar González was the executive sub-director of El Salvador's National Academy of Public Security. He began his career in the military, where he served for 10 years, reaching the rank of lieutenant.  After graduating from the academy, he worked as part of the elite forces, hostage-rescue and public-security units.  González served as sub-director general of the National Civil Police until 2006, when he left to work at the academy.

Full Audio File Size
87MB
Full Audio Title
Pedro Baltazar González Interview

Johan Burger

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C
Focus Area(s)
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15
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Daniel Scher
Name
Johan Burger
Interviewee's Position
Senior Lecturer, Crime and Justice Programme
Interviewee's Organization
Institute for Security Studies
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
South African
Town/City
Pretoria
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

Johan Burger talks about crime and policing in South Africa. To fight crime, he contends that the focus should be on its root causes, including, socioeconomic conditions, and the criminal justice system. He advocates the adoption of an integrated strategy that involves governmental and non-governmental departments to address these conditions and political factors. Burger discusses the National Crime Prevention Strategy that was adopted in 1996. The strategy failed due to lack of a shared understanding of crime and policing among politicians, lack of funding, a disregard for socioeconomic conditions, and the inability of police to deliver immediate and visible results on crime prevention. He also describes the various operations under the Community Safety Plan and the National Crime Combating Strategy, which focused on serious and violent crimes, organized crime, crimes against women and children, and improving service delivery. Burger recounts his experience working on the change-management team, which dealt with reforming the police. He talks about police demilitarization and rank restructuring. He describes the confusion and the decline in police morale and discipline that emerged as a result. Burger also challenges community policing. While he acknowledges instances of success, he argues that it is idealistic in terms of its expectations on how the police, in partnership with communities, can fight crime. He identifies sector policing as being more practical and tangible. Though it is still a joint effort between the police and the community, the police resolve only what they can and refer what they are unable to deal with to other government institutions.    

Profile

At the time of this interview, Johan Burger was a senior lecturer in the Crime and Justice Programme at the Institute for Security Studies in Pretoria.  Before that, he was a lecturer at the Tshwane University of Technology in the department of Safety and Security Management. Burger joined the police service in 1968 and retired in 2004 as an assistant commissioner.  Within the police force, he worked as a station commissioner and investigating officer. He was involved in policy and strategy development. Burger became a member of the change-management team that was created in 1993 as South Africa moved toward a new democracy. He later headed Strategy and Policy Development for the South African police service. 

Full Audio File Size
93 MB
Full Audio Title
Johan Burger - Full Interview

Thomas Du

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D
Focus Area(s)
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1
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Nealin Parker
Name
Thomas Du
Interviewee's Position
Senior Program Officer
Interviewee's Organization
National Democratic Institute, Liberia
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Liberian
Town/City
Monrovia
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract
Thomas Du, senior program officer at the National Democratic Institute in Liberia, explains his organization’s charge to facilitate the country’s transition to democracy by working closely with civil society and by engaging constructively with the government. Du recounts the history of party politics in Liberia, highlighting the racial divisions between dark-skinned natives and lighter-skinned repatriated American settlers, long periods of military rule and rigged elections. Parties proliferated as vehicles for individuals to attain power rather than on ideological grounds while significant portions of the population like youth, illiterates, and unskilled workers were neglected. Du explains the National Election Commission’s choice to be inclusive rather than strict in enforcing all electoral rules that would bar some people and parties from the process. He discusses the weak role of the media in the country and the difficulty of getting appropriate materials to illiterate voters. He touches on some different motivations that may have affected voters’ choices in the 2005 election as they determined what kind of leader they wanted to steer them through the democratic transition safely. Du emphasizes the importance of opening up the process by allowing multiple parties and media sources access to the political arena, while avoiding crowding the field with too many parties or news sources. He endorses developing and implementing rules for interparty competition, defining the roles of different stakeholders, and finding a way for parties to effectively disseminate their ideas to voters. Du analyzes election monitoring in the 2005 election and champions domestic monitoring of elections throughout the full election cycle to establish ownership of the process.  Looking toward future elections, he calls for the involvement of youth and women in civic culture and the cultivation of future leaders.
 
Profile
At the time of this interview, Thomas Du was the senior program officer at the National Democratic Institute in Liberia. His work at the institute supported the development of civil service infrastructure to assist in building democratic institutions in Liberia. He also studied the successes and failures of these techniques as a means of improvement.
Full Audio File Size
81 MB
Full Audio Title
Thomas Du - Full Interview

Oliver Somasa

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I
Focus Area(s)
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17
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Arthur Boutellis
Name
Oliver Somasa
Interviewee's Position
Deputy Inspector-General of Police
Interviewee's Organization
Sierra Leone
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Sierra Leonean
Town/City
Freetown
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract
Oliver Somasa gives an account of the police reforms in Sierra Leone.  The main priorities during the reform process were boosting the police’s crowd-control capacity; strengthening their ability to fight organized crime, drug-trafficking and money laundering; and developing airport and border authority to maximize tax revenues.  Somasa talks about police vetting, recruitment, rank restructuring due to lack of distinct functions across positions, and training. He highlights the role of capacity building in professionalizing the police.  International donors and organizations like the United Nations participated in providing the necessary working tools for the reforms.  Somasa describes the challenges raised by such outside organizations, including administrative bottlenecks and the shuffling of advisers that affected the continuity of operations.  Somasa also explains the establishment of Family Support Units, which increased the reporting of domestic crimes as people gained more confidence in the police.  In addition, he describes the department in charge of complaints, discipline, and internal investigation, which enabled the public to report complaints and to seek redress.  For the analysis of the implemented reforms, Somasa highlights the importance of the monitoring and evaluation department, the change-management board, and public-perception surveys that were conducted by independent bodies. 
Profile
At the time of this interview, Oliver Somasa was the deputy inspector-general of police in Sierra Leone.  He joined the Sierra Leone Police in 1987 as an officer cadet.   He later underwent training in drug-enforcement analysis in Vienna and on returning, he became the head of the anti-narcotics squad in the Criminal Investigation Department. 
Full Audio Title
Audio file not available.

Graham Muir

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B
Focus Area(s)
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6
Critical Tasks
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Arthur Boutellis
Name
Graham Muir
Interviewee's Position
Police Commissioner
Interviewee's Organization
United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Canadian
Town/City
Ottawa
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

Graham Muir describes the work of the United Nations Police as part of the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti from 2005 to 2006.  He goes into detail on multiple aspects of the U.N. mission, including the meaning of the U.N. mandate to the police force as opposed to the military. He also discusses the integration of the existing national police force with the U.N. international police force.  Muir also describes the U.N. police role in training and reform and how that role interacted with security.

Profile

Graham Muir was the commissioner of the United Nations Police as part of the U.N. Stabilization Mission in Haiti from 2005 to 2006.  At the time of the interview, he had served 32 years in the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.  Prior to his service in Haiti, Muir served as the director of general learning and development for the RCMP.  He first became involved in international police work in 1993 as a part of the U.N. Protection Force in the former Yugoslavia.  Between 1993 and 2005 Muir was heavily involved with the training of RCMP members for U.N. police service.  He also had been involved with the Pearson Peace Keeping Center for a number of years at the time of the interview.

 
Full Audio File Size
81 MB
Full Audio Title
Graham Muir - Full Interview

Adrian Horn

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A
Focus Area(s)
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9
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Daniel Scher
Name
Adrian Horn
Interviewee's Position
Police Consultant
Interviewee's Organization
Horn Ltd.
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
United Kingdom
Town/City
Norfolk
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

Adrian Horn reflects primarily on his five-year posting as manager of the Community Safety and Security Project in Sierra Leone, a program of of the U.K. government's Department for International Development. During his time in Sierra Leone, he assisted the Sierra Leonean police in overhauling their recruitment procedures and their training programs, and he comments in detail on the challenges and successes. He also talks about the importance of an effective public-relations system for a police service trying to re-establish legitimacy and credibility. He runs through some of the practical anti-corruption initiatives he developed with the Sierra Leonean police, and he reflects on his own management-by-walking-about style. Horn talks about "local-needs policing" as a conceptually similar but more clearly defined form of community policing, and details the successful role of community/police partnership boards.

Case Study:  Building Strategic Capacity in the Police:  Sierra Leone, 1998-2008

 

Profile

At the time of this interview, Adrian Horn had a long career in the U.K. police, rising to the position of assistant chief constable. He left the police in 1994 to set up a policing consultancy. He has worked in a number of developing and post-conflict countries, and spent five years as the manager of the Department for International Development's Community Safety and Security Project in Sierra Leone. He worked closely with the Sierra Leonean police and Inspector General Keith Biddle during a challenging and transformational time for Sierra Leone.

Full Audio File Size
56 MB
Full Audio Title
Adrian Horn - Full Interview

Julie Fleming

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L
Focus Area(s)
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3
Critical Tasks
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Arthur Boutellis
Name
Julie Fleming
Interviewee's Position
Chief, Community Policing Project
Interviewee's Organization
Kosovo
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
American
Place (Building/Street)
Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe offices
Town/City
Pristina, Republic of Kosovo
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

Julie Fleming describes how the International Crime Investigative Training Assistance Program started a pilot community policing program with five U.S. officers working in four municipalities in Kosovo. She gives details about the process of recruitment of community committees and the 12-week training program in Vushtrri; the project brought together young people from different ethnic backgrounds. At the time of the interview, it was present in 20 municipalities. A study showed long-term improvement in terms of freedom of movement, inter-ethnic relations, police-community relations, and other aspects. In her opinion, the main success of the project was that it was community-driven, although it suffered setbacks due to the political events of 2008. She also discusses her views on the successes and failures of community policing in Kosovo.

Case Study: Building the Police Service in a Security Vacuum: International Efforts in Kosovo, 1999-2011

Profile

At the time of this interview, Julie Fleming was chief of the community policing project in Kosovo, working with the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe and the U.S. International Crime Investigative Training Assistance Program. She started working as a police officer in 1985 and worked in California, in Oregon, in the Public Safety Academy, as a consultant in various U.S. states, and finally at the Regional Community Policing Institute (covering six western U.S. states) before coming to Kosovo in 2003 to implement the Community Safety Action Teams program.

Full Audio File Size
62MB
Full Audio Title
Julie Fleming Interview

Nuhu Ribadu

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D
Ref Batch Number
2
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Daniel Scher and Graeme Blair
Name
Nuhu Ribadu
Interviewee's Position
Former Head
Interviewee's Organization
Nigeria's Economic and Financial Crimes Commission
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Nigerian
Town/City
Washington, DC
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract
Nuhu Ribadu, former head of Nigeria’s Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), discusses the successes and challenges of creating a national anti-corruption task force. He explains how he became head of the EFCC and the process of creating a clear vision for the reforms. Ribadu details how the EFCC was able to prosecute some of Nigeria’s most notorious fraudsters in an attempt to change the country’s culture of corruption. He also touches on engaging with the media and civil society to get citizens on board with anti-corruption efforts, reaching out to the international community for advice and training resources, and recruiting staff. He explains the effects naming political candidates under investigation for corruption had on elections and political parties and briefly outlines the dangers of going after some of Nigeria’s wealthiest and most prominent citizens. Finally Ribadu discusses the importance of leadership and support from the president in carrying out successful reforms and how ultimately the loss of that support, he believes, crippled the organization and reversed previous successes.
Profile
At the time of this interview, Nuhu Ribadu was a visiting fellow at the Center for Global Development following the end of his tenure as the head of Nigeria’s Economic and Financial Crimes Commission, a position he held from the creation of the EFCC in 2003 until 2007, when he was briefly appointed to Assistant Inspector General of Police. At the end of 2007, following tension with the administration of newly-elected President Umaru Yar’Adua, Ribadu was removed from the EFCC and later dismissed from the police force. He had previously worked as a government prosecutor from 1985 until 2003. In January 2011 the Action Congress of Nigeria named Ribadu as their candidate for President.  In 1983 Ribadu received a bachelor of law from Ahmadu Bello University before graduating from the Nigerian Law School in 1984. He is currently a senior fellow at Oxford University.
Full Audio File Size
69 MB
Full Audio Title
Nuhu Ribadu - Full Interview