local police training

Andrew Hughes

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A
Focus Area(s)
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29
Critical Tasks
Interviewers
Daniel Scher and Jennifer Widner
Name
Andrew Hughes
Interviewee's Position
Police Adviser to the Department of Peacekeeping Operations
Interviewee's Organization
United Nations
Language
English
Town/City
New York, NY
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract
Andrew Hughes discusses his experiences working on police reform, including as former commissioner of police in Fiji. United Nations policing, says Hughes, has moved considerably into “reform, restructure, [and] rebuilding.” Challenges to effectively building U.N. policing capacity include recruiting quality professionals and gaining member state support for the continued growth of the Department of Peacekeeping Operations. Going forward, he says, it will be important for U.N. police to have more professional posts and a better-defined career structure. Further, as officers come from different contexts, with diverse policing styles and methodologies, Hughes notes that it is important to build a common understanding of what it means to be a police officer in the U.N. context, as well as train officers in a democratic policing model. Hughes concludes by discussing his experiences in Fiji, where he undertook efforts to reform and modernize the police, including by improving information systems, increasing the representation of women in the force, and implementing new community policing measures.  
Profile

At the time of this interview, Andrew Hughes had over 30 years of experience as a police officer, including as a deputy chief police officer in the Australian Capital Territory Police and assistant commissioner in charge of operations for the Australian Federal Police. He served as a liaison officer at the Australian High Commission in London, working with U.K. and European counterparts primarily on issues related to organized crime. Hughes also spent over three years as the commissioner of police in Fiji, prior to the December 2006 coup. On August 9, 2007, United Nations Secretary General Ban-Ki Moon announced Hughes' appointment as police adviser to the U.N., a role that placed him at the head of U.N. Police peacekeeping operations. 

Full Audio File Size
64 MB
Full Audio Title
Andrew Hughes - Full Interview

Muhamet Musliu

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L
Focus Area(s)
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13
Critical Tasks
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Arthur Boutellis
Name
Muhamet Musliu
Interviewee's Position
Administrative and Language Assistant
Interviewee's Organization
UN Mission in Kosovo Police
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Libyan
Place (Building/Street)
Kosovo Police Headquarters
Town/City
Pristina, Kosovo
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

An administrative and language assistant for the U.N. Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) Police, Muhamet Musliu speaks about his eight-year experience with the service.  Through his role as an interpreter, he gives a firsthand account of the successes and failures of the UNMIK Police.  He discusses the daily police routine and challenges faced by an officer in Kosovo, and he provides detail about ethnic tensions and protests in areas around Mitrovica.  He continues by describing the diversity of the UNMIK Police and the recruiting process.  Finally Musliu discusses the Serbian protest against the Kosovo Declaration of Independence, citing its crippling effect on the UNMIK Police.    

Case Study:  Building the Police Service in a Security Vacuum: International Efforts in Kosovo, 1999-2011

Profile

At the time of the interview Muhamet Musliu was an administrative and language assistant with the U.N. Mission in Kosovo Police.  He worked in the police headquarters in Priština, and had experience from the ethnically diverse territory covered by the Mitrovica South police station. 

Full Audio File Size
83 MB
Full Audio Title
Muhamet Musliu Interview

Francis Kiwanga

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T
Focus Area(s)
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4
Critical Tasks
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Daniel Scher
Name
Francis Kiwanga
Interviewee's Position
Executive Director
Interviewee's Organization
Legal and Human Rights Centre
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Tanzanian
Town/City
Dar es Salaam
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract
Francis Kiwanga, executive director of the Legal and Human Rights Centre in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, discusses the organization’s engagement with the Tanzanian police on human rights issues. Beginning in the early 2000s, the LHRC introduced police training in human rights issues at the district and regional levels in Tanzania. Other initiatives that Kiwanga discusses include successfully lobbying to have human rights included in the college-level training curriculum for police officers; creating booklets, pamphlets, and other materials to educate people about their rights when they are arrested by police; providing ad hoc training on human rights to senior police officials; and working with police to introduce gender and children’s desks in each region and police station. Kiwanga concludes by discussing a few of the successes and continued challenges of police reform in Tanzania.
 
Profile

At the time of this interview, Francis Kiwanga was the executive director of the Legal and Human Rights Centre, an advocacy center founded in 1995 that focuses on issues of human rights, good governance and provision of legal-aid services, located in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Prior to joining the Legal and Human Rights Centre, Kiwanga served in the Tanzanian civil service and worked in the private sector.   

Full Audio File Size
30.4MB
Full Audio Title
Francis Kiwanga- Full Interview

Peter Miller

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B
Focus Area(s)
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5
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Arthur Boutellis
Name
Peter Miller
Interviewee's Position
Police Commissioner
Interviewee's Organization
United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Canadian
Town/City
Ottawa
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract
Peter Miller draws on his experience in East Timor to highlight the challenges of building a domestic police force. He stresses that reformers must resist pressures to politicize the police by hiring unqualified friends of elected officials. Miller also mentions the difficulties posed by donor countries that press for fast action in order to minimize their costs. He says such pressures often produce domestic police forces that are inadequately prepared to take over when interim police units withdraw, as was the case in East Timor. Miller also is critical of the quality of many of the international police officers from contributing countries, especially those without a strong tradition of community policing. He calls for greater investments in the training of police officers before they are deployed, as well as in situ training of citizens. 
Profile

Peter Miller served with the Royal Canadian Mounted Police for 35 years, during which we worked mainly in international police peacekeeping. Under United Nations auspices, he served as deputy commissioner of operations and training in Haiti, police commissioner for the United Nations in Western Sahara and later as police commissioner in East Timor. In Western Sahara, Miller had police officers from 10 countries under his command and in East Timor he oversaw a police force of 3,000 officers including both local and international police. After retiring from the RCMP, Miller worked with the Pearson Peacekeeping Centre, a Canadian nonprofit organization, on capacity building in Africa related to peacekeeping operations.

Full Audio File Size
78 MB
Full Audio Title
Peter Miller - Full Interview

Lucas Kusima

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T
Focus Area(s)
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5
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Daniel Scher
Name
Lucas Kusima
Interviewee's Position
Senior Assistant Commissioner of Police
Interviewee's Organization
Tanzania
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Tanzanian
Town/City
Dar es Salaam
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

Lucas Kusima talks about reforms in policing prompted by the change in Tanzania's government leadership in 2005. He describes the shortfalls in recruitment of local police and the need to change training methods to improve professionalism and a greater understanding of human rights. He talks about the difficulties of modernizing equipment and information technologies when funding must come from the communities the police serve. Kusima discusses the medium-term strategic plan for reform that is part of the national vision for development by 2025 and the methods used to compile a reform document that is inclusive and builds citizen confidence. He describes the unexpected obstacles of trying to bring about reform such as the need to amend laws and the resistance to change by the police force. Financing remains the biggest challenge, he says. The foremost achievement was building the confidence of the public, and he talks about ways public confidence in community policing is measured.  

Case Study: Restoring Police Service with a Community Vision: Tanzania, 2006-2009

Profile

At the time of this interview, Lucas Kusima was assistant commissioner of police in Tanzania. He previously served as senior superintendent of police.

Full Audio File Size
79MB
Full Audio Title
Lucas Kusima Interview

Behar Selimi

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L
Focus Area(s)
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16
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Arthur Boutellis
Name
Behar Selimi
Interviewee's Position
Assistant Commissioner for Border Police
Interviewee's Organization
Kosovo Police Service
Language
English
Town/City
Pristina
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

General Behar Selimi discusses the formation, structure, international aid relationship, and future of the Kosovan Police Service. He begins by explaining his personal involvement with Yugoslavian and then Kosovan public security service. General Selimi was part of the second class to graduate from the Kosovan police academy, which opened in 1999. He describes the original application process for the academy and the two systems of advancement within in the service, appointment and promotion. Appointment filled the higher ranks after examination by foreign supervisors and three weeks of senior management training under observation. Promotions filled vacancies in the service’s lower positions by selecting applicants from the rank below with the best combination of standardized test scores and interview evaluations. General Selimi then discusses the formation of the Kosovo Police Service, commenting on the roles of the UN Mission in Kosovo, International Police Officers, and Steve Bennett and others of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe. He explains the shortcomings of non-locals and high turnover rates in the international supervision of the Kosovan Police Service. While some International Police Officers greatly aided Kosovo’s effort to establish a security service, many inhibited the service’s development and delayed the transition of power to Kosovan officials, he says. He then expresses approval of the European Union Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo, hoping that they help Kosovo integrate into the European Union and other international organizations. He concludes by discussing lack of specialization and employee benefits as challenges still facing the Kosovan Police Service’s development.    

Case Study: Building the Police Service in a Security Vacuum: International Efforts in Kovoso, 1999-2011

Profile

At the time of the interview, General Behar Selimi was the Assistant Commissioner for Border Police of the Kosovo Police Service (KPS) and Acting Deputy Commissioner. He began his career in law enforcement in 1984 as a police academy cadet in the Yugoslavian system. He later organized a union of Kosovan ex-police officers who had been terminated during the political unrest of the 1990s. General Selimi became an officer in the Kosovan Police Service in 2000, serving as a traffic officer, public relations officer, and police service’s first spokesperson. In 2003, he became a Lieutenant Colonel in charge of VIP and vital facility protection. By 2004, he was the Deputy Commissioner of Administration, overseeing internal affairs, recruitment, budget issues, audit and control, departmental logistics, and more. He was appointed Assistant Police Commissioner for Border Police in 2007. General Selimi has also trained in Germany and the U.S.

Full Audio File Size
40 MB
Full Audio Title
Behar Selimi Interview

Johan Burger

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C
Focus Area(s)
Ref Batch Number
15
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Daniel Scher
Name
Johan Burger
Interviewee's Position
Senior Lecturer, Crime and Justice Programme
Interviewee's Organization
Institute for Security Studies
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
South African
Town/City
Pretoria
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

Johan Burger talks about crime and policing in South Africa. To fight crime, he contends that the focus should be on its root causes, including, socioeconomic conditions, and the criminal justice system. He advocates the adoption of an integrated strategy that involves governmental and non-governmental departments to address these conditions and political factors. Burger discusses the National Crime Prevention Strategy that was adopted in 1996. The strategy failed due to lack of a shared understanding of crime and policing among politicians, lack of funding, a disregard for socioeconomic conditions, and the inability of police to deliver immediate and visible results on crime prevention. He also describes the various operations under the Community Safety Plan and the National Crime Combating Strategy, which focused on serious and violent crimes, organized crime, crimes against women and children, and improving service delivery. Burger recounts his experience working on the change-management team, which dealt with reforming the police. He talks about police demilitarization and rank restructuring. He describes the confusion and the decline in police morale and discipline that emerged as a result. Burger also challenges community policing. While he acknowledges instances of success, he argues that it is idealistic in terms of its expectations on how the police, in partnership with communities, can fight crime. He identifies sector policing as being more practical and tangible. Though it is still a joint effort between the police and the community, the police resolve only what they can and refer what they are unable to deal with to other government institutions.    

Profile

At the time of this interview, Johan Burger was a senior lecturer in the Crime and Justice Programme at the Institute for Security Studies in Pretoria.  Before that, he was a lecturer at the Tshwane University of Technology in the department of Safety and Security Management. Burger joined the police service in 1968 and retired in 2004 as an assistant commissioner.  Within the police force, he worked as a station commissioner and investigating officer. He was involved in policy and strategy development. Burger became a member of the change-management team that was created in 1993 as South Africa moved toward a new democracy. He later headed Strategy and Policy Development for the South African police service. 

Full Audio File Size
93 MB
Full Audio Title
Johan Burger - Full Interview

Building Civilian Police Capacity: Post-Conflict Liberia, 2003-2011

Author
Jonathan (Yoni) Friedman and Christine MacAulay
Focus Area(s)
Country of Reform
Abstract
As Liberia began to emerge from civil war in 2003, the warring sides agreed to overhaul the discredited national police service. In the Comprehensive Peace Agreement signed in Accra, Ghana, the parties designated the United Nations as the lead body in rebuilding and reforming Liberia’s civilian police capacity. In a joint effort between Liberian and U.N. police, led initially by U.N. Police Commissioner Mark Kroeker and Liberian Inspector General Chris Massaquoi, reformers vetted and trained a new police service of more than 4,000 officers, established specialized units to combat gender-based violence and high-risk threats, improved internal accountability mechanisms, and began to reverse the sordid reputation for unlawful killings and rape the police had earned during Liberia’s civil war. This case offers insights into the development of the Liberia National Police, one of the successes in post-war Liberia and an uncommon example of successful post-war police reform.
 

Jonathan (Yoni) Friedman drafted this case study on the basis of interviews conducted in Monrovia, Liberia, during June and July 2011, and on the basis of interviews conducted by Arthur Boutellis in Monrovia in May 2008 and text prepared by Christine MacAulay.  Case published September 2011. A separate case study, “Building an Inclusive, Responsive National Police Service: Gender-Sensitive Reform in Liberia, 2005-2011” describes efforts to increase gender diversity and respond to high rates of sexual and gender-based violence in Liberia.

Associated Interview(s):  Bruce Baker, Ibrahim Idris, Joseph Kekula, Mark Kroeker, Robert Perito, Paavani Reddy, Aaron Weah, Peter F. Zaizay

Kurt Eyre

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A
Focus Area(s)
Ref Batch Number
7
Critical Tasks
Interviewers
Gordon Peake
Name
Kurt Eyre
Interviewee's Position
Executive Head, International Academy Bramshill
Interviewee's Organization
National Policing Improvement Agency, U.K.
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
English
Town/City
Cranfield
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

Kurt Eyre details some of the history and development of the U.K.'s National Policing Improvement Agency, which provides training and assistance to police services in countries around the world.  He outlines the development of training courses and the agency's productive engagement with host-country police services.  He also details some of the agency's training programs with which he has been involved.  These include high-level command and control training programs, such as the Critical Incident Command course administered in Jamaica.  Eyre also talks about the agency's assistance to special police units charged with combating organized and serious crime, such as the Special Anti-Crime Unit of Trinidad and Tobago.

Profile

At the time of this interview, Kurt Eyre was the head of the International Academy Bramshill in the U.K.  The academy is a division of the government's National Policing Improvement Agency, which provides assistance to police services around the world.  The agency’s signature offerings are the International Commanders’ Program, for inspector and superintendent-level ranks, and the International Strategic Leadership Program, aimed at officers who are moving up to the executive level and chief officer rank.  Prior to his position at the academy, Eyre worked at Centrex, the U.K.’s central policing training and development authority.  Centrex and other U.K. policing agencies were merged in 2006 to create the National Policing Improvement Agency.
 

Full Audio File Size
34 MB
Full Audio Title
Kurt Eyre - Full Interview

Susan Nina Carroll

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G
Focus Area(s)
Ref Batch Number
1
Critical Tasks
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Larisa Jasarevic
Name
Susan Nina Carroll
Interviewee's Position
Senior Program Adviser
Interviewee's Organization
International Criminal Investigative Training Assistance Program
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
American
Town/City
Sarajevo
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract
Susan Nina Carroll discusses recruitment and training of the Bosnian police from an administrative perspective. She describes how a rigorous recruitment process produced recruitment classes that were below capacity, delaying the training process and raising costs. Carroll discusses the prevalence of women in the early training cohorts, and the efforts made to recruit in different languages and publications to attract minorities. Training was conducted at first by international trainers and was considered to be effective. There were two training schools, one in the Serb-dominated Republika Srpska, the other in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Though the schools taught identical curricula, she says the leaders of the schools refused to cooperate in various ways that would have reduced costs of training and streamlined various techniques and reporting methods. She contrasts the approach of American trainers, who stressed practical exercises, with that of European trainers, who favored verbal instruction. Finally, she discusses the benefits of generational change in the Bosnian police, arguing that change comes as new recruits take over managerial positions from the old guard.   
 
Profile
At the time of this interview, Susan Nina Carroll was a senior program adviser working as a consultant for Military Professional Resources Inc. on behalf of the International Criminal Investigative Training Assistance Program of the U.S. Department of Justice. She began her career in the U.S. military, moving to a private security firm in 1992, where she worked as director of training. She left to work in the training department of the Atlanta Committee for the Olympic Games, and when the games began in 1996 she ran security for the Olympics at the Atlanta airport, where participants arrived. After the Olympics, she accepted several contracts from ICITAP to train police in Haiti and Croatia before beginning her work in Bosnia. 
Full Audio File Size
52 MB
Full Audio Title
Susan Nina Carroll - Full Interview