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Robert Bradley

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I
Focus Area(s)
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2
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Arthur Boutellis
Name
Robert Bradley
Interviewee's Position
Interim Component Manager, Safety and Security
Interviewee's Organization
Justice Sector Development Programme
Language
English
Town/City
Freetown
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract
Robert Bradley details his past policing experiences and discusses his role as the manager of the Justice Sector Development Programme in the security sector reform in Sierra Leone. Bradley outlines the program's priorities: supporting the Complaints, Discipline, Internal Investigation Department to build capacity, working with the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the inspector general of police, and encouraging police partnership boards at the grassroots level, where the community can hold the police accountable. Oversight agencies like the press, the courts, and non-governmental organizations also engaged in monitoring police activities. Bradley also highlights policing lessons drawn from his past experiences in Australia, Cambodia, Cyprus, Mozambique and other locales. He advises international organizations that are offering reform assistance to partner with locals who have knowledge of their country’s systems and laws. In the area of capacity building, he urges such organizations to design and develop training programs within the country, because people are more likely to accept homegrown solutions, and the outcomes last longer. 
 
Profile

At the time of this interview, Robert Bradley was the interim component manager ofsafety and security at the Justice Sector Development Programme in Freetown, Sierra Leone. His career in policing began in 1966 when he joined the former Australian Capital Territory police. In 1967, he was drafted into the army and he served in Vietnam. On his return to Australia in 1969, Bradley was reappointed to the ACT police. He participated in community policing in Jervis Bay and later, he worked on criminal investigations and in the Juvenile Aid Bureau. Bradley also served in the general policing division, which dealt primarily with positions related to United Nations work such as recruitment and training of officers for overseas deployment. He was a part of the U.N. missions to Cyprus, Cambodia and Mozambique. In 1995, Bradley resigned from the police force and set up police training programs in Bosnia, Eastern Slovenia, Mongolia and other areas.  

Full Audio File Size
63 MB
Full Audio Title
Robert Bradley - Full Interview

Peter F. Zaizay

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J
Focus Area(s)
Ref Batch Number
18
Critical Tasks
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Arthur Boutellis
Name
Peter F. Zaizay
Interviewee's Position
Deputy Minister for Administration and Acting Minister for National Security
Interviewee's Organization
Liberia
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Liberian
Town/City
Monrovia
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract
Peter F. Zaizay gives a detailed account of the post-war reforms and the restructuring of the Liberian National Police (LPN). He discusses how the 2003 Accra Comprehensive Peace Agreement gave the United Nations the mandate to carry out the reforms. The U.N. Police were predominantly involved in deactivating the LNP and recruiting new officers after vetting, and were also engaged in training the police and  developing community policing forums. Zaizay recounts the challenges faced during the process: the large number of unskilled and unemployed youth who contributed to a rise in crime, gender-based violence, armed robbery within communities that lacked private security, the expected return of the huge refugee population abroad that posed a potential security threat, and the issue of whether or not the LNP would be accepted and respected by the locals after the U.N. left. Zaizay also talks about the government’s plans to integrate and amalgamate security institutions due to overlapping functions among organizations and the lack of sufficient funds to run them. He describes the history of politicization of the security service and the lack of established mechanisms for depoliticization. He emphasizes the need for an independent and professional civilian oversight board. As a result of the reforms, ethnic balance within the LNP was attained and a protection section for women and children was established. Zaizay stresses the importance of learning from other countries like Sierra Leone, Ghana and Uganda to find out how they have managed to transform their police services.
 
Profile

At the time of this interview, Peter F. Zaizay was Liberia's deputy minister for administration and the acting minister for national security. He began his career in private security in 1986. He worked with the Jascere Security Services. In 1992, Zaizay joined the Liberian National Police, and he worked in the Patrol Division, the Criminal Investigation Division and the Criminal Intelligence Unit. He also served as an assistant director of police for press and public affairs from 2004 to 2006. Later, he became the deputy director of police for training and then the commandant of the National Police Training Academy, a position he held from 2006 to 2007.

Full Audio File Size
39MB
Audio Subsections
Size
63MB
Title
Peter F. Zaizay Interview Part 2
Full Audio Title
Peter F. Zaizay Interview Part 1

Ramchrisen Haveria

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P
Focus Area(s)
Ref Batch Number
15
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Nicolas Lemay-Hebert
Name
Ramchrisen Haveria
Interviewee's Position
Deputy District Commander
Interviewee's Organization
United Nations Integrated Mission in Timor-Leste
Language
English
Place (Building/Street)
National Police Headquarters
Town/City
Newtown Area, Baucau
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract
Ramchristen Haveria explains the role of the United Nations missions in Timor-Leste and in Kosovo. The main goal of the missions is to assist both countries to establish effective police systems through their mentoring program while working with the local communities. The implementation of the U.N. guidelines in both countries is quite similar. Haveria discusses how the United Nations Police (UNPOL) contributed in the improvement of order in Timor-Leste by teaching the local police ways of implementing and maintaining public order. Some of the challenges they faced in the missions were cultural and language barriers, logistics problems, and hostility in some areas. Haveria also discusses the U.N. internal management and its relationship with the local personnel and the rest of the population.
Profile

At the time of this interview, Ramchristen Haveria was the deputy district commander for the United Nations Integrated Mission in Baucau, Timor-Leste. He previously worked at the regional operations office in the Philippines. Also, he served concurrently as the station chief of the Police Community Relations Office and as the chief of the Internal Affairs Office. He also worked as the chief of the Drug Enforcement Unit and as the assistant chief of the Special Operations group. He was involved in U.N. missions in Timor-Leste and Kosovo. 

Full Audio File Size
56MB
Full Audio Title
Ramchristen Haveria Interview

Carlos Humberto Vargas García

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M
Focus Area(s)
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3
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Flor Hunt
Name
Carlos Humberto Vargas García
Interviewee's Position
Chief of Studies
Interviewee's Organization
National Academy of Public Security, El Salvador
Language
Spanish
Nationality of Interviewee
El Salvadoran
Place (Building/Street)
National Academy of Public Security
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract
Carlos Humberto Vargas García describes the challenges of establishing a police academy in El Salvador after the Peace Accords of 1992.  He begins by explaining the recruitment and training process, the academic-degree requirements for candidates, and the quota system.  Challenges that he faced in training the police force include lack of resources, internal administrative issues and lingering resentment between the former warring factions.  He describes the usefulness of his training with ICITAP (the International Criminal Investigative Training Assistance Program), the role of donor countries, the training curriculum, community policing and the importance of having an integrated police. He contends that while it is important to receive aid and training from multiple countries,  international donors should not impose preconditions, as they are not familiar with the local reality. 
Profile

At the time of this interview, Carlos Humberto Vargas García was the chief of studies at the National Academy of Public Security in El Salvador, an institution separate from the national police. From 1992 to 1995, he was the first sub-director of the academy, and he trained in the U.S. and Central America with ICITAP, the International Criminal Investigative Training Assistance Program. He also worked in the private sector, in other universities in El Salvador as a professor of engineering, and for the Instituto Salvadoreño de Formación Profesional, which is in charge of non-formal education.

Full Audio File Size
84.5MB
Full Audio Title
Vargas Garcia Interview

Giorgio Butini

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R
Focus Area(s)
Ref Batch Number
1
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Matthew Devlin
Name
Giorgio Butini
Interviewee's Position
Former Central Coordinator and Deputy Head of Program
Interviewee's Organization
Proxima (EU police mission in Macedonia)
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Italian
Town/City
Skopje
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

Giorgio Butini, police adviser to the Office of the EUSR/EU Commission Delegation in Skopje, Macedonia, recounts his experiences while serving as central coordinator and deputy head of program for Proxima, the European Union police mission in the former Yugoslav republic.  During 18 years with the Italian State Police, he rose to the rank of lieutenant colonel.  Butini discusses the coordination of efforts of various external organizations in the transition from a military to civilian police force in Macedonia.  His reflections about the representation of ethnic Albanians and Macedonians in the reformed police force and his insights into the coordination of efforts between and among external and internal actors contribute to the conversation on structural components of policing reform.

Profile

At the time of this interview, Giorgio Butini was police adviser to the Office of the EUSR/ EU Commission Delegation in Skopje, Macedonia. A lieutenant colonel of the Italian State Police with 18 years of active service, in 2001 he joined the United Nations mission in Kosovo, where he served for more than a year as deputy regional commander in the Pec/Peja Region.  In 2003 he went to Brussels as a police expert during the Italian presidency of the European Union.  In October 2003 he was part of the planning team in Brussels and Skopje that launched Proxima,  the EU police mission in the former Yugoslav republic, where he served for two years, first as central coordinator and then as deputy head of program.  Co-author of a manual on international police missions, he was also a trainer at the European Police Academy beginning in 2002.

Full Audio File Size
37.5MB
Full Audio Title
Giorgio Butini- Full Interview

Ranjit Singh Sardara

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P
Focus Area(s)
Ref Batch Number
16
Critical Tasks
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Nicolas Lemay-Hebert
Name
Ranjit Singh Sardara
Interviewee's Position
Chief of Operations
Interviewee's Organization
United Nations Police, Manatuto, Timor Leste
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Malaysian
Place (Building/Street)
UNPOL Headquarters
Town/City
Manatuto
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract
Ranjit Singh Sardara discusses the policing role of the U.N. missions in Bosnia-Herzegovina and in Timor-Leste. Being a part of the Bosnian mission, he highlights the significance of community policing, working with non-governmental organizations and ministers to find the best ways to benefit the local citizenry. He also recounts his involvement in overseeing the election process in Visegrad. Regarding the Timor-Leste mission, Sardara describes mentoring plans and the classes organized for the Policia Nacional de Timor-Leste, or the National Police of Timor-Leste. In addition, he describes working with the Suco chiefs to educate the locals on human rights, the duties of the police, child abuse, and domestic violence. Sardara also talks about the U.N.'s internal management and its relationship with the host country’s police and the rest of the population.
Profile

At the time of this interview, Ranjit Singh Sardara was the chief of operations of the United Nations Police in Manatutu, Timor-Leste. He served in the Royal Malaysian Police for 27 years. His experience spanned community policing, traffic cases, crime prevention, and operations and intelligence. Sardara was also a part of the U.N. mission in Bosnia-Herzegovina. He served as an election officer in Visegrad; he held the post of deputy station commander and later, station commander. Sardara also served as the deputy regional commander of Sarajevo.

 
Full Audio File Size
84MB
Full Audio Title
Ranjit Singh Sardara Interview

Neil Pouliot

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B
Focus Area(s)
Ref Batch Number
4
Critical Tasks
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Arthur Boutellis
Name
Neil Pouliot
Interviewee's Position
Retired Chief Superintendent
Interviewee's Organization
Royal Canadian Mounted Police
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Canadian
Town/City
Ottawa
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract
Neil Pouliot, a retired chief superintendent with the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, discusses his experiences as the commander of the United Nations Mission in Haiti from 1994 to 1996. He recounts the security and rule of law challenges posed by the scaling down of U.N. multinational forces. In particular, he describes the challenges associated with effectively recruiting and training new police officers, including the need to demobilize and, in some cases, integrate officers of the former regime. Among the challenges that the U.N. and the international community face in effectively building police services capacity, Pouliot notes, is maintaining continuity between missions and leadership. He argues that police services training is best overseen by integrated multinational forces with diverse language ability and cultural frames of reference. Police reform, he states, requires broader commitment to justice and rule and law from the highest levels of the political sphere. Based on his experiences, Pouliot stresses that it is important that officers have field-based training and live and interact with the communities in which they work.
Profile

Neil Pouliot served as the commander of the military and civilian police components of United Nations Mission in Haiti from 1994 to 1996. In this role, he worked with the government of Haiti to maintain and safe and secure environment, prepare for elections, provide interim security, and oversee police services development. Prior to his work in Haiti, Pouliot worked with the Royal Canadian Mounted Police in Canada, including as the officer in charge of national/international drug operations. He also served as a course coordinator and lecturer at the Canadian Police College and as a resource person for the U.N. Division of Narcotics and Interpol. Pouliot also served as the officer in charge of the Security Offenses Branch for the Criminal Intelligence Directorate in Ottawa and the director of Criminal Intelligence Services Canada, an organization tasked with coordinating intelligence in Canada and internationally through the RCMP and other police forces. At the time of this interview, Pouliot was retired as chief superintendent and was working as a consultant with RCMP.   

Full Audio File Size
65 MB
Full Audio Title
Neil Pouliot - Full Interview

Iver Frigaard

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L
Focus Area(s)
Ref Batch Number
4
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Arthur Boutellis
Name
Iver Frigaard
Interviewee's Position
Acting Commissioner
Interviewee's Organization
United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Norwegian
Town/City
Pristina, Republic of Kosovo
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

Iver Frigaard describes how criminal networks developed in Kosovo in the absence of effective law enforcement activity. He discusses his reasons for objecting to the decision to drop the word Service from the official name of the Kosovo Police Service. He describes the police force as functional and says police had earned the respect of the population despite being deficient in certain skills. He discusses the problems of low salaries, corruption, political influence, the process of recruitment and vetting, and the transfer of power and responsibilities from the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo to the Kosovo Police. He extensively describes the issues of politicization and ethnic differences that affected the police force in Kosovo.

Case Study: Building the Police Service in a Security Vacuum: International Efforts in Kosovo, 1999-2011

Profile

At the time of this interview, Iver Frigaard was the acting police commissioner for the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo, a post to which he was appointed in May 2008 by the U.N.'s Department of Peacekeeping Operations. Educated as a lawyer and with a military background, he became a public prosecutor with the police in Norway. After 11 years in the security services, he spent another 11 years with Interpol in France before joining UNMIK in Kosovo in 2007 as deputy commissioner for crime.

Full Audio File Size
72MB
Full Audio Title
Iver Frigaard Interview

David Beer

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B
Focus Area(s)
Ref Batch Number
1
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Arthur Boutellis
Name
David Beer
Interviewee's Position
Chief Superintendent, Director General of International Policing
Interviewee's Organization
Royal Canadian Mounted Police
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Canadian
Town/City
Ottawa
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
Yes
Abstract

Chief Superintendent Dave Beer of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police recounts his experiences in leading policing/justice development missions, particularly in Haiti, in the early 1990s and then about a decade later.  His length of service in the arena of international peacekeeping and the parameters under which he has served, both as a representative of the Canadian government during a bilateral mission and under the aegis of the United Nations during a multilateral mission through the Department of Peacekeeping Operation, carries with it a broad viewpoint as to the development of policing in Haiti. His experience in other states, particularly Iraq and Liberia, provides a comparative study of best practices. He particularly offers insight into pre-deployment training by the U.N. and the Canadian government and on-the-ground knowledge of local recruitment strategies and requirements.  The sentiments of this quote reverberate throughout the interview,  "It is an axiom, I think, of this world of international development that you have to find local solutions led by local individuals supported by the local government for it to be either a) instituted; b) successful; and c) sustainable. You’re not going to have any one of those three unless it’s a locally-created program."

Case Study:  Building an Inclusive, Responsive National Police Service: Gender-Sensitive Reform in Liberia, 2005-2011

Profile

At the time of this interview, Chief Superintendent Dave Beer was serving as the director general of international policing for the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, a position that included peace-operations deployments, liaison with INTERPOL, and oversight of the international operations branch, the visits and travel branch, and the international affairs and policy branch.  Beer led or participated in policing development missions under the auspices of the Canadian International Development Agency, the United Nations Department of Peacekeeping Operations and the U.S. State Department.  Although he spent the most time in Haiti, partially due to his being bilingual in French and English, he also served in Liberia, Central African Republic and Iraq.   

Full Audio File Size
37 MB
Full Audio Title
Dave Beer - Full Interview

Faton Hamiti

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L
Focus Area(s)
Ref Batch Number
6
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Arthur Boutellis
Name
Faton Hamiti
Interviewee's Position
Administrative Assistant, Office of the Police Commissioner
Interviewee's Organization
United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo
Language
English
Place (Building/Street)
Kosovo Police Headquarters
Town/City
Pristina, Republic of Kosovo
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

Faton Hamiti describes how the police station in Kosovo where he worked as a language assistant moved from being predominantly staffed by U.N. Police officers to having mostly Kosovo Police Service officers. He explains that the first members of UNPOL to arrive in 1999 were well accepted, but they later encountered difficulties due to political issues, lack of cooperation from the population and differences in police techniques among the international officers that were training the KPS. He explains in detail the complex process of transferring power and responsibility from the UNPOL to the KPS, and how the complicated status of Kosovo reflected on policing. He also gives many accounts of his experience while patrolling with the police.

Case Study: Building the Police Service in a Security Vacuum: International Efforts in Kosovo, 1999-2011

Profile

At the time of this interview, Faton Hamiti was the administrative assistant in the Office of the Police Commissioner of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo. He initially worked as a journalist in a daily newspaper in Kosovo before the war and then became a language assistant with UNMIK, first with a U.N. Police patrol and later at the police-station level. In 2006 he started working with the deputy police commissioner for operations, and in 2008 he was assigned as personnel/administrative assistant to the police commissioner.

Full Audio File Size
62MB
Full Audio Title
Faton Hamiti Interview