Job descriptions

Marwanto Harjowiryano

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ZO
Focus Area(s)
Ref Batch Number
2
Interviewers
Rushda Majeed
Name
Marwanto Harjowiryano
Language
English
Town/City
Jakarta
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

In this interview, Marwanto Harjowiryano describes institutional reforms in the Ministry of Finance, most notably the introduction of Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). Dr. Marwanto discusses the fiscal reforms and priorities throughout his career beginning in the early 1980s. The bulk of his interview details the structure and implementation of reforms in the ministry. He explains how the reformers distributed the power of the budget office by separating the Treasury, the Fiscal Balance Office and the Budget Office. Next the ministry introduced SOPs in every service that directly contacted the public, beginning with several quick wins or excellent services in every directorate-general. The ministry intended the SOPs to reduce and standardize service times, while also reducing corruption by establishing accountability regarding the cost and time of services. Within the ministry, evaluation teams ensured directorate-generals properly implemented their SOPs and made credible promises.  The ministry engaged with other government agencies to encompass various aspects of their reforms, and Dr. Marwanto describes these joint efforts. One challenge he describes is the difficulty of changing not only behavior but also culture, both within the directorate-general’s staff and among customers. A major element was human resources reform through the introduction of performance evaluations, and Dr. Marwanto details the steps of this initiative. He ends with comments on the sustainability and spirit of the reforms.

Profile

At the time of this interview, Dr. Marwanto Harjowiryano was Director-General of Fiscal Balance in the Ministry of Finance. He had recently served as an Executive Director at Asian Development Bank (ADB). He began his career with the Ministry of Finance in the early 1980s. He took on various roles in the ministry, including serving as the first spokesman for the ministry and as the Senior Advisor to the Minister of Finance under Sri Mulyani Indrawati. He then became the Chairman of Bureaucracy Reform, the position he describes in this interview. Dr. Marwanto earned a doctoral degree from Gadjah Mada Graduate University in Yogyakarta, where he also completed his bachelor’s degree in economics. During his time in the ministry he obtained a master’s degree in economics from Vanderbilt University.

Mary Theopista Wenene

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F
Focus Area(s)
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8
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Andrew Schalkwyk
Name
Mary Theopista Wenene
Interviewee's Position
Commissioner for Public Service Inspection
Interviewee's Organization
Uganda Ministry of Public Service
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Ugandan
Town/City
Kampala
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract
Mary Theopista Wenene discusses the process of public service reform in Uganda, beginning with the key challenges the country faced before the reforms began and a basic outline of the programs implemented to address them.  She outlines how the Ministry of Public Service implemented a results-oriented management system across the public service and the importance of the system in emphasizing accountability and performance evaluations.  She also touches on the implementation of an integrated payroll and personnel management system.  Wenene briefly discusses outreach to the public to gauge the success of reforms and service delivery.  Finally she explains how the public service was working to reduce excess and overlapping jobs by downsizing through a voluntary retirement system.
Profile

At the time of this interview, Mary Theopista Wenene was the commissioner for public service inspection at the Ministry of Public Service in Uganda.   She previously served as the assistant commissioner for administrative reform within the Ministry of Public Service.

Full Audio File Size
44 MB
Full Audio Title
Mary Theopista Wenene - Full Interview

Syed Tanveer Hussain

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G
Focus Area(s)
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5
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Andrew Schalkwyk
Name
Syed Tanveer Hussain
Interviewee's Position
Founder and Consultant
Interviewee's Organization
Climate Change Company
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Bangladeshi
Place (Building/Street)
Ideas Manzil
Town/City
Dhaka
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

Syed Tanveer Hussain discusses a report on Bangladeshi government downsizing and restructuring he authored for the Office of the Prime Minister in 2002.  This document examined the implementation status and relative urgency of recommendations issued by 17 prior administrative reform committees and reorganization commissions.  Hussain describes a number of reasons for unsuccessful or incomplete implementation: lack of political will across party lines, insufficient explanation of reform rationale, finger-pointing at civil servants that generates built-in resistance, a reform committee system that fosters procrastination, and a distribution of power that at times favors the interests of a stable bureaucracy.  Hussain characterizes his ideal for the bureaucracy and describes a four-step process to achieve that ideal through planning, structural reform, capacity building and constant monitoring.  He then explains in detail each of his concrete proposals.  Among successfully implemented recommendations he counts separation of the Supreme Court and judiciary from other branches of government, and the establishment of quotas for civil service employment of the handicapped. Pending recommendations include administrative downsizing through elimination of function redundancy and outsourcing of some tasks to the private sector, appointment of an ombudsman, creation of financial incentives for civil servant relocation to remote areas of the country, computerization of ministries, employment of local manpower at Bangladeshi embassies for efficiency, retirement age increase in response to improvements in life expectancy, a constitutional mandate for a Civil Service Act, division of civil service into functional clusters to facilitate competition for awards and promotion, and creation of a senior-management pool.  While the government forwarded the report to the Establishment Division for implementation, it neglected its recommendation to streamline reform through an Administrative Performance Services Division modeled after its Malaysian equivalent and set up under the Prime Minister’s Office. Hussain believes centralization is key for successful administrative reform.  

Case Study:  Energizing the Civil Service: Managing at the Top 2, Bangladesh, 2006-2011

Profile

An economist by training, Syed Tanveer Hussain was trained for the civil service in Pakistan in 1970. He worked for the Bangladesh national government for 34 years. He held various high-ranking positions in the ministries of finance, planning, housing and public works, textiles and environment.  He served as census commissioner in 2001, and retired from public office as environment secretary in 2004.  He went on to work as a consultant for the World Bank and other international players through his firm, Climate Change Company.    

Full Audio File Size
56MB
Full Audio Title
Syed Tanveer Hussain Interview

Awni Yarvas

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X
Focus Area(s)
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2
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Deepa Iyer
Name
Awni Yarvas
Interviewee's Organization
Former Director, Civil Status and Passports Department
Language
Arabic with English translation
Nationality of Interviewee
Jordan
Town/City
Amman
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

Awni Yarvas discusses reforms undertaken in Jordan’s Department of Civil Status and Passports, with a focus on those that took place under his tenure.  He explains how increases in efficiency were possible with changes in departmental structure, employee incentives, and, in particular, computerization.  Yarvas details how changes in procedures for issuing passports and national IDs improved the department's efficiency and accuracy.

Case Studies:  Creating a 'Citizen Friendly' Department: Speeding Document Production in Jordan, 1991-1996 and People and Machines--Building Operational Efficiency: Document Processing in Jordan, 1996-2005

Profile
Awni Yarvas served as director of Jordan’s Civil Status and Passports Department from 1996 to 2005.  He previously served as a major general in Jordan’s General Intelligence Department.  In 2005, he was appointed Jordan’s Minister of Interior, a position he held until 2010.
Full Audio File Size
50 MB
Full Audio Title
Awni Yarvas - Full Interview

Nasouh Marzouqa

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X
Focus Area(s)
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1
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Deepa Iyer
Name
Nasouh Marzouqa
Interviewee's Position
Former Director
Interviewee's Organization
Civil Status and Passports Department
Language
Arabic with English translation
Nationality of Interviewee
Jordanian
Town/City
Amman
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

Nasouh Marzouqa discusses major reforms in Jordan’s Civil Status and Passports Department during his time as its director.  He describes how he improved the physical infrastructure of the department and streamlined the process for issuing passports.  Marzouqa also worked to institute a system of national identification numbers and began the process of computerizing the department.  He also discusses his efforts to motivate employees.    

Case Study:  Creating a 'Citizen Friendly' Department: Speeding Document Production in Jordan, 1991-1996

Profile

Nasouh Marzouqa served as head of Jordan’s Civil Status and Passports Department from 1991 to 1996, during which he oversaw massive reforms to the department. He previously served as director of the police departments in Irbid and Amman, and was director general of the Department of Public Security from 1985 to 1989.

Full Audio File Size
207 MB
Full Audio Title
Nasouh Marzouqa - Full Interview

Kakha Bendukidze

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J
Focus Area(s)
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6
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Andrew Schalkwyk
Name
Kakha Bendukidze
Interviewee's Position
Faculty
Interviewee's Organization
Free University, Tbilisi
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Georgia
Town/City
Tbilisi
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

Kakha Bendukidze outlines his experiences and personal views about downsizing Georgia’s civil service and reducing the number of government agencies, functions and employees. He argues that the traditional model of civil service promotion and tenure is not appropriate in the fluid political and economic context of Georgia. He suggests that reforms cannot be sequenced formally. Rather, the opportunities for reform fluctuate with political circumstances and must be seized when they present themselves.  He explains how budget reforms were used as instruments to reduce the size of the civil service and the functions of Georgia’s government.    

Case Study:  Delivering on the Hope of the Rose Revolution: Public Sector Reform in Georgia, 2004-2009

Profile

At the time of this interview, Kakha Bendukidze had returned to the faculty of the Free University in Tbilisi (February 2009) after serving four years and nine months in the government of Georgia, most recently as head of the state Chancellery.  Before assuming that position in February 2008, he served as minister for reforms coordination and minister of economic development in 2004-2005.

Full Audio File Size
44 MB
Full Audio Title
Kakha Bendukidze - Full Interview

Taboka Nkhwa

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L
Focus Area(s)
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8
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Daniel Scher
Name
Taboka Nkhwa
Interviewee's Position
Deputy Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Youth, Sport and Culture
Interviewee's Organization
Government of Botswana
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Botswana
Town/City
Gabarone
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract
Taboka Nkhwa discusses Botswana’s efforts to improve public service institutions. She reflects upon the role of political impulse, discontent within the private sector, and international political conditions in providing an impetus for change. She also talks about the role of training, technical assistance, consultants, and communication in improving Botswana’s civil service. Nkhwa also offers insights into the obstacles to reform, such as political and bureaucratic resistance, financial cost, accountability and failures of service delivery.    
 
Profile
At the time of this interview, Taboka Nkhwa was the deputy permanent secretary in Botswana's Ministry of Youth, Sport and Culture. Prior to that, she was deputy director for the Directorate of Public Service. She had worked as a management consultant for ministries in Botswana, where she analyzed ministerial structures and functioning. She was also involved in introducing a performance management system for the public service of Botswana. Earlier, she served as deputy director for human resource management for Commonwealth Public Services under the Governance and Institutional Development Division.
Full Audio File Size
29MB
Full Audio Title
Taboka Nkhwa Interview

David Beretti

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Y
Focus Area(s)
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1
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Michael Woldemariam
Name
David Beretti
Interviewee's Position
Executive Director of Corporate Services
Interviewee's Organization
City of Cape Town, South Africa
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
South African
Town/City
Cape Town
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

David Beretti recounts his experiences working with the city of Cape Town. While Beretti had a 38-year experience with the city government at the time, he focuses on his body of work as the executive director of corporate services. He begins his discussion by detailing the efforts to reform the many municipalities of Cape Town down to one streamlined unit. He discusses the many challenges the government of Cape Town faced in instituting this reform. First, he recounts discussion surrounding the sequence of reforms. He details the efforts to work with the collective bargaining organizations that originally opposed the reforms. Faced with a short deadline of only six months, he explains the innovations that were created in order to address redundant positions that existed among the pervious seven municipalities while avoiding serious retrenchment. Beretti also explains the outside accountability measures used to ensure the cooperation and satisfaction of the City of Cape Town’s employees. This included a large-scale survey and performance monitoring system for the reform process. He concludes his detailed discussion with information on how diversity was handled in the recruitment and promotion process.    

Case Study:  Municipal Turnaround in Cape Town, South Africa, 2006-2009

Profile

At the time of the interview, David Beretti was the executive director of corporate services for the City of Cape Town, having worked for the city for 38 years. Beretti previously held positions in the finance, engineering, planning and human resources departments of the City of Cape Town. In his current position, he is responsible for the full human resource functions for 25,000 employees.  He also manages the legal services, information systems and technology departments. During his time as executive director of corporate services, Beretti oversaw the reformation of Cape Town from an original 39 municipalities in to one streamlined city government.    

Full Audio File Size
187 MB
Full Audio Title
David Beretti - Full Interview

Jairo Acuña-Alfaro

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M
Focus Area(s)
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1
Country of Reform
Interviewers
David Hausman
Name
Jairo Acuña-Alfaro
Interviewee's Position
Policy Adviser
Interviewee's Organization
United Nations Development Programme
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Costa Rican
Town/City
Hanoi
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

Jairo Acuña-Alfaro discusses Vietnam’s past and, at the time of the interview, ongoing and future efforts to reform the civil service. He discusses the Vietnamese public sector’s shortcomings, including corruption, nepotism, politicization, low salaries, and a lack of clear job descriptions. He describes what Vietnam is doing to modernize its civil service by introducing merit-based considerations in recruitment and promotions; to encourage professionalism by restructuring and formalizing the civil service and improving performance management; to improve service delivery through decentralization, consolidation, and the establishment of one-stop shops; and to curtail corruption by enacting pay reform and monetizing benefits. He also discusses challenges specific to Vietnam, including the politicization of civil service through the single-party system, rigid hierarchism and the consequent lack of initiative from subordinates, and other cultural factors. Finally, Acuña-Alfaro emphasizes the establishment of best practices as key to reforming a country’s civil service.    

Case Study:  Measuring Citizen Experiences: Conducting a Social Audit in Vietnam, 2009-2013

Profile

At the time of this interview, Jairo Acuña-Alfaro had been working for the United Nations Development Programme since 2007. Prior to that, he had worked with the UNDP in Costa Rica; with the World Bank in Washington, D.C.; and at the World Bank Institute, where he studied governance and anticorruption. Acuña-Alfaro earned a doctoral degree in political economy from Oxford University.

Full Audio File Size
61MB
Full Audio Title
Jairo Acuña-Alfaro Interview

Francesco Giambrone

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B
Focus Area(s)
Ref Batch Number
13
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Rushda Majeed
Name
Francesco Giambrone
Interviewee's Position
Councilor of Culture
Interviewee's Organization
Municipality of Palermo
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Italian
Town/City
Palermo
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

In this interview Francesco Giambrone discusses the challenges, priorities, strategies, and results of his four years as Councilor of Culture for the Municipality of Palermo. When Mayor Leoluca Orlando, under whom Giambrone served, took office in 1992, Palermo’s cultural icons were largely closed and unknown to the citizens. Giambrone describes the Villa Trabia, Teatro Massimo, and Lo Spasimo as magnificent pieces of Palermo’s culture and history that the municipality neglected. Many Palermitans had never seen or knew nothing about the buildings despite their central location. Giambrone outlines his three interdependent priorities as councilor that aimed to restore cultural awareness and pride in the city. First, he sought to reopen closed spaces like the Villa Trabia, Teatro Massimo, and Lo Spasimo. Second, he needed to spend more money. Giambrone explains that the previous administration often spent only a fraction of the budget, but he used to the full budget to put the civil servants to work restoring cultural spaces for reopening to the public. Lastly, he pushed for a change in the mentality amongst the civil servants. He says that he tried to replace a culture of unprofessionalism and lack of dedication with a more hard-working and responsible attitude. He also describes a close relationship, marked by cooperation and agreement, amongst members of Mayor Orlando’s administration. Giambrone expresses satisfaction with the reforms in the short term. Civic awareness and pride and economic activity returned to the city while crime rates dropped. But he acknowledges that the reforms did not sustain after the departure of Orlando and his administration and speculates why. Giambrone concludes with two anecdotes about the restoration of Lo Spasimo and the reopening of the Teatro Massimo, describing them both as important moments in Palermo’s cultural reawakening.

Case Studies:  Palermo Renaissance Part 1: Rebuilding Civic Identity and Reclaiming a City from the Mafia in Italy, 1993-2000Palermo Renaissance Part 2: Reforming City Hall, 1993-2000; and Palermo Renaissance Part 3: Strengthening Municipal Services, 1993-2000

Profile

Francesco Giambrone served the Municipality of Palermo under Mayor Leoluca Orlando as Councilor of Culture from 1995-1999. He then became the General Manager of the Teatro Massimo in Palermo for three years. From 2006 to 2010, he worked as the General Manager of the Teatro del Maggio Musicale Fiorentino in Florence. Currently, he is the President of the Conservatory of Palermo and teaches management of musical performance at the University of Palermo. Originally trained as a cardiologist, Giambrone worked as a critic, journalist, and essayist on music, dance, and culture after his medical education and before his appointment to the Palermo City Council.

Full Audio Title
Audio Available Upon Request