internal management

Carlos Manuel Lopes Pereira

Ref Batch
P
Focus Area(s)
Ref Batch Number
22
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Nicolas Lemay-Hebert
Name
Carlos Manuel Lopes Pereira
Interviewee's Position
Dili District Deputy Commander
Interviewee's Organization
United Nations Police, East Timor
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Portuguese
Town/City
Dili
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract
Carlos Manuel Lopes Pereira describes his work for United Nations missions in the former Yugoslavia in the 1990s, and then recounts how he came to Timor-Leste with the U.N. Police. He focuses on legal issues of the U.N. policing mission, such as the complex legal traditions of Timor-Leste, the specific prosecuting procedures in Timorese law, and the differences between Kosovo, Bosnia and Timor-Leste. He describes in detail the way in which the UNPOL dealt with a series of student protests in Dili, and with the general problems of gangs, pickpocketing, cultural differences and with bureaucracy and absenteeism within the institution. He also discusses how UNPOL had been mentoring and training the National Police of Timor-Leste. 
Profile

At the time of this interview, Carlos Manuel Lopes Pereira was serving as Dili district deputy commander for the United Nations Police mission in Timor-Leste.  He was a member of the Portuguese police for 20 years. He was the commander of a police unit north of Lisbon, and had previously worked as chief supervisor in Portugal.  He served in U.N. missions in Croatia, Bosnia, Kosovo and  Timor-Leste.

Full Audio File Size
91MB
Full Audio Title
Carlos Manuel Lopes Pereira Interview

Paavani Reddy

Ref Batch
J
Focus Area(s)
Ref Batch Number
14
Critical Tasks
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Arthur Boutellis
Name
Paavani Reddy
Interviewee's Position
Civil Society Officer
Interviewee's Organization
United Nations Development Programme
Language
English
Town/City
Monrovia
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

As a technical assistant to the Ministry of Gender in Liberia, Paavani Reddy discusses her key task of mainstreaming gender-based policies in the national security sector. She explains the challenges in increasing the number of women in the security sector and in making the services offered more gender friendly, which included limited capacity in terms of personnel and resources. Reddy describes the national police’s Accelerated Learning Program for women who were unable to complete their high school education; the program aimed to raise the number of female police by enabling them to meet the application requirements for recruitment.   Also, she discusses violence against women, particularly rape and the need for the police to focus more on crime prevention through community policing. She highlights the significance of establishing a civilian oversight body that deals with both the army and the police to ensure that they are more gender sensitive.  

Case Study: Building an Inclusive, Responsive National Police Service: Gender-Sensitive Reform in Liberia, 2005-2011 and Building Civilian Police Capacity: Post-Conflict Liberia, 2003-2011

Profile

At the time of this interview, Paavani Reddy was working as a civil society officer for the United Nations Development Programme, seconded to the Ministry of Gender of the government of Liberia as a technical assistant on policies. Her duties entailed mainstreaming gender-based policies in the national security sector and implementing the Poverty Reduction Strategy. Previously, she worked for CARE International (Cooperative for Assistance and Relief Everywhere, Inc.) in Rwanda in 2005 and in New York in 2004. 

Full Audio File Size
53MB
Full Audio Title
Paavani Reddy Interview

Motlepu Marhakhe

Ref Batch
X
Focus Area(s)
Ref Batch Number
3
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Daniel Scher
Name
Motlepu Marhakhe
Interviewee's Position
Deputy Director
Interviewee's Organization
Office of the Inspector of Police
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Lesotho
Place (Building/Street)
Police Inspectorate
Town/City
Maseru
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

Motlepu Marhakhe discusses the various entities comprising Lesotho’s police force. He focuses on the Police Inspectorate, Lesotho Mounted Police Service (LMPS) and the Police Authority who oversees both agencies. Lesotho’s police service was relatively new at the time of the interview, having been created only five years prior. Marhakhe says that the nature of policing in Lesotho has changed over time. The focus of the police has increasingly been towards community-oriented policing on account of democratic influences in Lesotho. In much of the interview, Marhakhe discusses the relationship between the main Police Authority, and the LMPS and Police Inspectorate. Marhakhe explains that the Minister does not propose policies, but rather approves or denies proposals made by the LMPS. Most of the responsibilities of the police force in Lesotho fall on the shoulders of those working in the Police Inspectorate, not the Police Authority (Minister). When given a mandate by the Police Authority, Marhakhe said that both the Police Inspectorate and LMPS regularly collaborate and discuss to form strategies.    

Case Study:  Reining in a Rogue Agency: Police Reform in Lesotho, 1997-2010

Profile

At the time of this interview, Marhakhe was deputy inspector at the Police Inspectorate. This agency is separate from the Lesotho Mounted Police Service (LMPS). Marhakhe had previously served as assistant commissioner of the police for LMPS. On account of his prior experience in LMPS, he was later recruited to work in the Police Inspectorate, which oversees the policing service in Lesotho.

Full Audio File Size
25 MB
Full Audio Title
Motlepu Marhakhe Interview

Brian Dobrich

Ref Batch
P
Focus Area(s)
Ref Batch Number
21
Critical Tasks
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Nicolas Lemay-Hebert
Name
Brian Dobrich
Interviewee's Position
Director, Strategic Information Department
Interviewee's Organization
United Nations Police, East Timor
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Australian
Place (Building/Street)
National Police Headquarters
Town/City
Dili
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract
Brian Dobrich describes his role in the United Nations mission in Timor-Leste, where he was serving at the time of the interview. He describes how the U.N. police initially mentored the National Police of Timor-Leste on how to conduct investigations. In the first half of the interview, he explains how the U.N. dealt with crime in the districts and with the problem of gangs in the capital, Dili. In the second half, he talks about the internal workings of such U.N. missions, including problems of inefficiency, rigidity and bureaucracy. He also offers advice on how to build good relations with the local police force.
Profile
At the time of this interview, Brian Dobrich was a member of the Australian Federal Police, dealing mainly with frauds against the government, narcotics, and counter-terrorism. His latest overseas mission was in Timor-Leste, working for the United Nations to restore law and order and to ensure security and policing in Dili, following fighting between the Timorese military and the police. At the time of the interview, he was director of the Strategic Information Department  for the U.N. police mission in Timor-Leste. He served with the U.N. peacekeeping force in Cyprus in 1981 and with UNPOL in 1997. These assignments were followed by service with the U.N.Transitional Administration in Timor-Leste in 2001 and two non-U.N. missions in the Solomon Islands.
Full Audio File Size
69MB
Full Audio Title
Brian Dobrich Interview

Joseph Kekula

Ref Batch
J
Focus Area(s)
Ref Batch Number
8
Critical Tasks
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Arthur Boutellis
Name
Joseph Kekula
Interviewee's Position
Former Inspector-General
Interviewee's Organization
Liberian National Police
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Liberian
Town/City
Monrovia
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract
Joseph Kekula, former inspector-general of the Liberian National Police, talks about the police reforms in Liberia that the United Nations Police undertook under the 2003 Comprehensive Peace Agreement. He discusses the process of rank restructuring and its contribution in demilitarizing the police. He points out the role of the Change Management Committee that combined local and U.N. police in developing guidelines for recruitment, vetting and other procedures.  In their efforts to professionalize the police, Kekula describes the challenges they encountered, including inadequate human resource capacity, lack of operational equipment and materials, and poor public relations. As part of the solutions, he explains how Community Policing Forums changed the police’s image and boosted public confidence. He also discusses the government’s agreement to raise police salaries in a bid to increase manpower and the need for a population census to determine the number of police required in the country.
 
Profile

At the time of this interview, Joseph Kekula was the former inspector-general of the Liberian National Police. He specialized in VIP protection and worked in the presidential mansion. He came up through the ranks to become a colonel. During the transitional government from 2003 to 2005, Kekula served as a deputy director for police administration. 

Full Audio File Size
73MB
Full Audio Title
Joseph Kekula Interview

Muhamet Musliu

Ref Batch
L
Focus Area(s)
Ref Batch Number
13
Critical Tasks
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Arthur Boutellis
Name
Muhamet Musliu
Interviewee's Position
Administrative and Language Assistant
Interviewee's Organization
UN Mission in Kosovo Police
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Libyan
Place (Building/Street)
Kosovo Police Headquarters
Town/City
Pristina, Kosovo
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

An administrative and language assistant for the U.N. Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) Police, Muhamet Musliu speaks about his eight-year experience with the service.  Through his role as an interpreter, he gives a firsthand account of the successes and failures of the UNMIK Police.  He discusses the daily police routine and challenges faced by an officer in Kosovo, and he provides detail about ethnic tensions and protests in areas around Mitrovica.  He continues by describing the diversity of the UNMIK Police and the recruiting process.  Finally Musliu discusses the Serbian protest against the Kosovo Declaration of Independence, citing its crippling effect on the UNMIK Police.    

Case Study:  Building the Police Service in a Security Vacuum: International Efforts in Kosovo, 1999-2011

Profile

At the time of the interview Muhamet Musliu was an administrative and language assistant with the U.N. Mission in Kosovo Police.  He worked in the police headquarters in Priština, and had experience from the ethnically diverse territory covered by the Mitrovica South police station. 

Full Audio File Size
83 MB
Full Audio Title
Muhamet Musliu Interview

Lucas Kusima

Ref Batch
T
Focus Area(s)
Ref Batch Number
5
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Daniel Scher
Name
Lucas Kusima
Interviewee's Position
Senior Assistant Commissioner of Police
Interviewee's Organization
Tanzania
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Tanzanian
Town/City
Dar es Salaam
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

Lucas Kusima talks about reforms in policing prompted by the change in Tanzania's government leadership in 2005. He describes the shortfalls in recruitment of local police and the need to change training methods to improve professionalism and a greater understanding of human rights. He talks about the difficulties of modernizing equipment and information technologies when funding must come from the communities the police serve. Kusima discusses the medium-term strategic plan for reform that is part of the national vision for development by 2025 and the methods used to compile a reform document that is inclusive and builds citizen confidence. He describes the unexpected obstacles of trying to bring about reform such as the need to amend laws and the resistance to change by the police force. Financing remains the biggest challenge, he says. The foremost achievement was building the confidence of the public, and he talks about ways public confidence in community policing is measured.  

Case Study: Restoring Police Service with a Community Vision: Tanzania, 2006-2009

Profile

At the time of this interview, Lucas Kusima was assistant commissioner of police in Tanzania. He previously served as senior superintendent of police.

Full Audio File Size
79MB
Full Audio Title
Lucas Kusima Interview

Ulrich Schiefelbein

Ref Batch
J
Focus Area(s)
Ref Batch Number
16
Critical Tasks
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Arthur Boutellis
Name
Ulrich Schiefelbein
Interviewee's Position
National Police Administration Advisory Team Leader
Interviewee's Organization
United Nations Mission in Liberia
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
German
Place (Building/Street)
Pan African Plaza
Town/City
Monrovia
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract
Ulrich Schiefelbein, the Liberian national police administration advisory team leader, talks about the objective of the United Nations Mission in Liberia, which was mainly to keep peace and to reconstruct the national police force. He identifies the challenges the Liberian police faced, including lack of proper documentation, logistical problems, limited infrastructure, lack of policing skills, financial difficulties that hindered the proper payment of the officers, corruption due to inadequate supervision and lack of public confidence in the local police. Schiefelbein explains how the U.N. police began to train the Liberian police, conduct a police census while working with the local officers, install a personnel data filing system to help curb payroll problems and create shared computer resources to ensure continuity of work between officers working different shifts. He also recommends community policing and setting a priority in the installation of communication channels as part of the process of professionalizing the Liberian police force.
 
Profile
At the time of this interview, Ulrich Schiefelbein was working with the United Nations Police in the mission in Liberia as the national police administration advisory team leader. He began his police career in Germany. He served as a patrol officer, deputy chief of the Drug Investigation Unit and as the chief of the Administration Unit. In 1997 and 1998, Schiefelbein participated in two U.N. missions in Bosnia. 
Full Audio File Size
45MB
Full Audio Title
Ulrich Schiefelbein Interview

Gareth Newham

Ref Batch
C
Focus Area(s)
Ref Batch Number
1
Critical Tasks
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Daniel Scher
Name
Gareth Newham
Interviewee's Position
Policy and Strategy Adviser
Interviewee's Organization
Gauteng Provincial MEC for Community Safety
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
South African
Town/City
Johannesburg
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract
Gareth Newham discusses the challenges of reforming the police service and building the rule of law in post-apartheid South Africa. As a policy and strategy adviser, he identifies shortcomings in the police force, formulates projects to fix them, and assists in implementing the solutions.  Newham touches upon issues of promotion, discipline, information management, and anti-corruption measures in Gauteng. For example, he believes that the best way to combat corruption is to create a culture in which police officers condemn corruption within their own ranks. In collaboration with actual members of the police force, Newham developed an anti-corruption model based on prevention, detection, investigation, and restoration. By instructing police officers ahead of time of the consequences of engaging in corruptive behavior, the police force could take proactive measures towards fighting corruption. Newham drew upon the research of others in implementing police reforms, but he acknowledges that there is no single way to create an effective police force. Instead, reforms must be tailored to the specific society.          
Profile

Gareth Newham studied organizational psychology and political studies at the University of Cape Town. He completed a post-graduate degree in political studies and wrote his honors dissertation on civil-military relations and how South Africa could ensure democratic control of the military. In 2002, he received a master’s degree from the Graduate School for Public and Development Management at Wits University. His master’s dissertation looked at how to promote police integrity at Hillbrow Police Station, a corrupt inner-city station. Newham previously worked for the Institute for Democracy in South Africa (IDASA) where he led the Provincial Parliamentary Monitoring Project and conducted research on provincial legislatures. He later served as project manager for the Center for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation (CSVR) where he focused on police management issues and crime prevention. In March 2006, Newham became the policy and strategy adviser to the Gauteng MEC (Member of the Executive Cabinet) for Community Safety, a post he continued to hold at the time of this interview.       

Full Audio Title
Audio Available Upon Request

Robert Bradley

Ref Batch
I
Focus Area(s)
Ref Batch Number
2
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Arthur Boutellis
Name
Robert Bradley
Interviewee's Position
Interim Component Manager, Safety and Security
Interviewee's Organization
Justice Sector Development Programme
Language
English
Town/City
Freetown
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract
Robert Bradley details his past policing experiences and discusses his role as the manager of the Justice Sector Development Programme in the security sector reform in Sierra Leone. Bradley outlines the program's priorities: supporting the Complaints, Discipline, Internal Investigation Department to build capacity, working with the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the inspector general of police, and encouraging police partnership boards at the grassroots level, where the community can hold the police accountable. Oversight agencies like the press, the courts, and non-governmental organizations also engaged in monitoring police activities. Bradley also highlights policing lessons drawn from his past experiences in Australia, Cambodia, Cyprus, Mozambique and other locales. He advises international organizations that are offering reform assistance to partner with locals who have knowledge of their country’s systems and laws. In the area of capacity building, he urges such organizations to design and develop training programs within the country, because people are more likely to accept homegrown solutions, and the outcomes last longer. 
 
Profile

At the time of this interview, Robert Bradley was the interim component manager ofsafety and security at the Justice Sector Development Programme in Freetown, Sierra Leone. His career in policing began in 1966 when he joined the former Australian Capital Territory police. In 1967, he was drafted into the army and he served in Vietnam. On his return to Australia in 1969, Bradley was reappointed to the ACT police. He participated in community policing in Jervis Bay and later, he worked on criminal investigations and in the Juvenile Aid Bureau. Bradley also served in the general policing division, which dealt primarily with positions related to United Nations work such as recruitment and training of officers for overseas deployment. He was a part of the U.N. missions to Cyprus, Cambodia and Mozambique. In 1995, Bradley resigned from the police force and set up police training programs in Bosnia, Eastern Slovenia, Mongolia and other areas.  

Full Audio File Size
63 MB
Full Audio Title
Robert Bradley - Full Interview