incentive systems

José Hugo Granadino Mejía

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Focus Area(s)
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7
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Flor Hunt
Name
José Hugo Granadino Mejía
Interviewee's Position
Chief, Professional Training Unit
Interviewee's Organization
National Police of El Salvador
Language
Spanish
Nationality of Interviewee
El Salvadoran
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract
José Hugo Granadino Mejía begins by describing the process of integrating various factions into the police, and he recounts fears (that never materialized) that members of formerly opposing sides would kill each other. He gives details about the curriculum used during police training at the academy, about the entry quota system and about the academic degree requirements for new recruits. He describes in detail the promotion system within the police force and the way in which the police incorporated new ideas and procedures. Relations with donor countries are also discussed, and he gives great importance to the financial and technical support that the police force received from the international community.
Profile

At the time of this interview, José Hugo Granadino Mejía was chief of the professional training unit of the National Police of El Salvador. A lawyer and notary, he in 1993 became one of the first professors at the National Academy of Public Security (Academia Nacional de Seguridad Pública), an institution separate from the National Police. He also served as director of study and later as director general of the academy, and he worked as a professor of law at the Universidad de El Salvador for 25 years and at the Universidad Tecnológica de El Salvador.

Full Audio File Size
117MB
Full Audio Title
Jose Granadino Mejía Interview (Spanish)

Julie Fleming

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Focus Area(s)
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3
Critical Tasks
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Arthur Boutellis
Name
Julie Fleming
Interviewee's Position
Chief, Community Policing Project
Interviewee's Organization
Kosovo
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
American
Place (Building/Street)
Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe offices
Town/City
Pristina, Republic of Kosovo
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

Julie Fleming describes how the International Crime Investigative Training Assistance Program started a pilot community policing program with five U.S. officers working in four municipalities in Kosovo. She gives details about the process of recruitment of community committees and the 12-week training program in Vushtrri; the project brought together young people from different ethnic backgrounds. At the time of the interview, it was present in 20 municipalities. A study showed long-term improvement in terms of freedom of movement, inter-ethnic relations, police-community relations, and other aspects. In her opinion, the main success of the project was that it was community-driven, although it suffered setbacks due to the political events of 2008. She also discusses her views on the successes and failures of community policing in Kosovo.

Case Study: Building the Police Service in a Security Vacuum: International Efforts in Kosovo, 1999-2011

Profile

At the time of this interview, Julie Fleming was chief of the community policing project in Kosovo, working with the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe and the U.S. International Crime Investigative Training Assistance Program. She started working as a police officer in 1985 and worked in California, in Oregon, in the Public Safety Academy, as a consultant in various U.S. states, and finally at the Regional Community Policing Institute (covering six western U.S. states) before coming to Kosovo in 2003 to implement the Community Safety Action Teams program.

Full Audio File Size
62MB
Full Audio Title
Julie Fleming Interview

Iver Frigaard

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Focus Area(s)
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4
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Arthur Boutellis
Name
Iver Frigaard
Interviewee's Position
Acting Commissioner
Interviewee's Organization
United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Norwegian
Town/City
Pristina, Republic of Kosovo
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

Iver Frigaard describes how criminal networks developed in Kosovo in the absence of effective law enforcement activity. He discusses his reasons for objecting to the decision to drop the word Service from the official name of the Kosovo Police Service. He describes the police force as functional and says police had earned the respect of the population despite being deficient in certain skills. He discusses the problems of low salaries, corruption, political influence, the process of recruitment and vetting, and the transfer of power and responsibilities from the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo to the Kosovo Police. He extensively describes the issues of politicization and ethnic differences that affected the police force in Kosovo.

Case Study: Building the Police Service in a Security Vacuum: International Efforts in Kosovo, 1999-2011

Profile

At the time of this interview, Iver Frigaard was the acting police commissioner for the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo, a post to which he was appointed in May 2008 by the U.N.'s Department of Peacekeeping Operations. Educated as a lawyer and with a military background, he became a public prosecutor with the police in Norway. After 11 years in the security services, he spent another 11 years with Interpol in France before joining UNMIK in Kosovo in 2007 as deputy commissioner for crime.

Full Audio File Size
72MB
Full Audio Title
Iver Frigaard Interview

Faton Hamiti

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Focus Area(s)
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6
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Arthur Boutellis
Name
Faton Hamiti
Interviewee's Position
Administrative Assistant, Office of the Police Commissioner
Interviewee's Organization
United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo
Language
English
Place (Building/Street)
Kosovo Police Headquarters
Town/City
Pristina, Republic of Kosovo
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

Faton Hamiti describes how the police station in Kosovo where he worked as a language assistant moved from being predominantly staffed by U.N. Police officers to having mostly Kosovo Police Service officers. He explains that the first members of UNPOL to arrive in 1999 were well accepted, but they later encountered difficulties due to political issues, lack of cooperation from the population and differences in police techniques among the international officers that were training the KPS. He explains in detail the complex process of transferring power and responsibility from the UNPOL to the KPS, and how the complicated status of Kosovo reflected on policing. He also gives many accounts of his experience while patrolling with the police.

Case Study: Building the Police Service in a Security Vacuum: International Efforts in Kosovo, 1999-2011

Profile

At the time of this interview, Faton Hamiti was the administrative assistant in the Office of the Police Commissioner of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo. He initially worked as a journalist in a daily newspaper in Kosovo before the war and then became a language assistant with UNMIK, first with a U.N. Police patrol and later at the police-station level. In 2006 he started working with the deputy police commissioner for operations, and in 2008 he was assigned as personnel/administrative assistant to the police commissioner.

Full Audio File Size
62MB
Full Audio Title
Faton Hamiti Interview

Kadi Fakondo

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Focus Area(s)
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5
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Arthur Boutellis
Name
Kadi Fakondo
Interviewee's Position
Assistant Inspector General
Interviewee's Organization
Sierra Leone Police
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Sierra Leonean
Place (Building/Street)
Sierra Leone Police headquarters
Town/City
Freetown
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

Kadi Fakondo discusses improvements in policing in Sierra Leone in the few years prior to the 2008 interview. She discusses the emphasis placed on management, human rights, electoral policing and crowd control within the Sierra Leone Police. Fakondo also reflects on the creation of the highly successful Family Support Unit for victims of domestic or sexual violence. She discusses the success of police in improving recruitment and training procedures and increasing transparency. She praises the media for creating awareness and attributes improved media relations to the democratization and transparency of the police organization. Fakondo also discusses support from international organizations and donors in bolstering police operations.     

Case Study: Building Strategic Capacity in the Police: Sierra Leone, 1998-2008

Profile

At the time of the interview, Kadi Fakondo was the assistant inspector general of the Sierra Leone Police and was responsible for the training of police officers. Prior to that, she was assistant inspector general in charge of crime services, and was charged with the oversight of the Criminal Investigation Division, the Family Support Unit and the intelligence division. She joined the Sierra Leone Police in 1984.

Full Audio File Size
38MB
Full Audio Title
Kadi Fakondo Interview

Joseph Kekula

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Focus Area(s)
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8
Critical Tasks
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Arthur Boutellis
Name
Joseph Kekula
Interviewee's Position
Former Inspector-General
Interviewee's Organization
Liberian National Police
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Liberian
Town/City
Monrovia
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract
Joseph Kekula, former inspector-general of the Liberian National Police, talks about the police reforms in Liberia that the United Nations Police undertook under the 2003 Comprehensive Peace Agreement. He discusses the process of rank restructuring and its contribution in demilitarizing the police. He points out the role of the Change Management Committee that combined local and U.N. police in developing guidelines for recruitment, vetting and other procedures.  In their efforts to professionalize the police, Kekula describes the challenges they encountered, including inadequate human resource capacity, lack of operational equipment and materials, and poor public relations. As part of the solutions, he explains how Community Policing Forums changed the police’s image and boosted public confidence. He also discusses the government’s agreement to raise police salaries in a bid to increase manpower and the need for a population census to determine the number of police required in the country.
 
Profile

At the time of this interview, Joseph Kekula was the former inspector-general of the Liberian National Police. He specialized in VIP protection and worked in the presidential mansion. He came up through the ranks to become a colonel. During the transitional government from 2003 to 2005, Kekula served as a deputy director for police administration. 

Full Audio File Size
73MB
Full Audio Title
Joseph Kekula Interview

Semboja Haji

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Focus Area(s)
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2
Critical Tasks
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Daniel Scher
Name
Semboja Haji
Interviewee's Position
Researcher
Interviewee's Organization
Economic Research Bureau, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Tanzanian
Place (Building/Street)
University of Dar es Salaam
Town/City
Dar es Salaam
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
Yes
Abstract
Semboja Haji describes the challenges facing police reform in Tanzania in 2006 and the assignment of a “team of experts,” which he led, to devise a reform strategy.  He explains that prior attempts at police reform had failed because of a lack of commitment by the government and insufficient financial resources. He says outdated laws and regulations, some stemming from the colonial era, governed the police.The team, comprising seven academics and 28 police, conducted two years of research, including interviews with more than 2,500 police, politicians and civil society leaders, and reviews of police reform efforts in other countries.  He explains that members of the Tanzanian police bought into the reform program because they felt the reforms reflected the input and suggestions they offered in interviews. He says the reform program was entirely designed by Tanzanians without external advisers or donors in order to avoid constraints imposed by donors, and because foreign experts lacked an intimate knowledge of policing conditions in Tanzania.
 
Profile

At the time of this interview, Semboja Haji was a researcher at the Economic Research Bureau at the University of Dar es Salaam. Trained as an econometrician in Sweden and Norway, he later became a senior research fellow at the Economic and Social Research Foundation in Tanzania, where he worked for eight years. He helped develop the Tanzania 2025 Vision and Zanzibar 2020 Vision strategies, and had extensive experience advising the Tanzanian government in areas including national investment policy, energy policy, telecommunication, economic growth and poverty reduction.

Full Audio File Size
53MB
Full Audio Title
Semboja Haji Interview

Pedro Baltazar González

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Focus Area(s)
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14
Critical Tasks
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Flor Hunt
Name
Pedro Baltazar González
Interviewee's Position
Executive Sub-Director
Interviewee's Organization
National Academy of Public Security, El Salvador
Language
Spanish
Nationality of Interviewee
El Salvadoran
Place (Building/Street)
National Academy of Public Security
Town/City
San Salvador
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

Pedro Baltazar González discusses two aspects related to the activities of the National Academy of Public Security: recruitment strategies, and training and modernization of the police force.  Underscoring the academy’s commitment to recruitment of young people with a vocation for public service—regardless of their initial skills—he describes a successful internal recruitment strategy based on referrals by current officers.  He identifies another media-aware recruitment strategy aimed at young people from eastern El Salvador, who are underrepresented among recruits due to the influence of relatives living abroad. The importance of this strategy is due to the negative impact of relocation of other academy graduates to the east in the absence of any personal ties to the region.  González then discusses a number of initiatives undertaken to modernize the curriculum at the academy, emphasizing a shift from theoretical instruction to practical work. Training addresses other changes in society, such as gender sensitivity issues and new judicial developments to keep up with changing demands from the populace.

Profile

At the time of the interview, Pedro Baltazar González was the executive sub-director of El Salvador's National Academy of Public Security. He began his career in the military, where he served for 10 years, reaching the rank of lieutenant.  After graduating from the academy, he worked as part of the elite forces, hostage-rescue and public-security units.  González served as sub-director general of the National Civil Police until 2006, when he left to work at the academy.

Full Audio File Size
87MB
Full Audio Title
Pedro Baltazar González Interview

Mustafa Resat Tekinbas

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Focus Area(s)
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17
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Arthur Boutellis
Name
Mustafa Resat Tekinbas
Interviewee's Position
Deputy Police Commissioner
Interviewee's Organization
United Nations Mission in Kosovo
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Turkish
Place (Building/Street)
U.N. Camp Alpha
Town/City
Pristina, Kosovo
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

Mustafa Resat Tekinbas speaks about his role with the United Nations Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) Police.  As a deputy police commissioner, he discusses his experience both in working with U.N. international policing and with the administrative intricacies of the Kosovo mission.  He begins by detailing the structure of the UNMIK police and explaining the progress the mission had made in the eight years since the inception of the force.  Tekinbas talks about the U.N. policies behind international police assignments, the limitations of pre-deployment training and aspects of the immersive training that takes place in the field.  He details efforts to deploy international police in certain areas to maximize their effectiveness.  He concludes with an example of the grueling work schedule of an international policeman and offers ideas for improvement.  

Case Study: Building the Police Service in a Security Vacuum: International Efforts in Kosovo, 1999-2011

Profile

At the time of this interview, Mustafa Resat Tekinbas was serving as deputy police commissioner for the United Nations Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK).  He began his career in Istanbul, Turkey, and worked as a police officer for more than two decades.  Tekinbas received additional police training in the United States, and his experience spanned intelligence, information technology and riot control.  He began working with UNMIK in 2003.  

Full Audio File Size
87 MB
Full Audio Title
Mustafa Tekinbas Interview

Kabiru Ibrahim

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Focus Area(s)
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9
Critical Tasks
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Arthur Boutellis
Name
Kabiru Ibrahim
Interviewee's Position
United Nations Police Elections Adviser
Interviewee's Organization
United Nations Integrated Office in Sierra Leone
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Nigerian
Town/City
Freetown
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

Kabiru Ibrahim discusses the nature of the relationship between the Sierra Leonean Police and the United Nations Police, and the policing reforms that they were jointly pursuing.  Most of the reforms involve a high degree of training and capacity building.  The best and most cost-effective training method for a country like Sierra Leone, Ibrahim asserts, is to provide training for a small number of officers and equip them with the skills to train the rest of the Sierra Leonean Police.  As the U.N. Police elections adviser in the country, he identifies the major challenges that reformers face, including limited resources, weak discipline within the Sierra Leonean Police, and the division and distrust that exists between the unarmed general duty police and the armed operational support division.  Ibrahim also discusses issues surrounding investigation and crime management, specifically the tendency of police officers to bring a large number of cases to trial, but failing to follow through on the cases.  He concludes by maintaining that the reform efforts were succeeding slowly and that more resources would have increased effectiveness.

Profile

At the time of this interview, Kabiru Ibrahim was the United Nations Police elections adviser at the United Nations Integrated Office in Sierra Leone.  A Nigerian, he attended Nigerian Military School before deciding to shift his focus and join the police service.  He began working with the international police force in 2000, and was deployed as a U.N. police officer to Kosovo and Burundi before his deployment to Sierra Leone in 2007. 

Full Audio File Size
43 MB
Full Audio Title
Kabiru Ibrahim Interview