external accountability structures

Carlos Manuel Lopes Pereira

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Focus Area(s)
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22
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Nicolas Lemay-Hebert
Name
Carlos Manuel Lopes Pereira
Interviewee's Position
Dili District Deputy Commander
Interviewee's Organization
United Nations Police, East Timor
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Portuguese
Town/City
Dili
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract
Carlos Manuel Lopes Pereira describes his work for United Nations missions in the former Yugoslavia in the 1990s, and then recounts how he came to Timor-Leste with the U.N. Police. He focuses on legal issues of the U.N. policing mission, such as the complex legal traditions of Timor-Leste, the specific prosecuting procedures in Timorese law, and the differences between Kosovo, Bosnia and Timor-Leste. He describes in detail the way in which the UNPOL dealt with a series of student protests in Dili, and with the general problems of gangs, pickpocketing, cultural differences and with bureaucracy and absenteeism within the institution. He also discusses how UNPOL had been mentoring and training the National Police of Timor-Leste. 
Profile

At the time of this interview, Carlos Manuel Lopes Pereira was serving as Dili district deputy commander for the United Nations Police mission in Timor-Leste.  He was a member of the Portuguese police for 20 years. He was the commander of a police unit north of Lisbon, and had previously worked as chief supervisor in Portugal.  He served in U.N. missions in Croatia, Bosnia, Kosovo and  Timor-Leste.

Full Audio File Size
91MB
Full Audio Title
Carlos Manuel Lopes Pereira Interview

Robert Bradley

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I
Focus Area(s)
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2
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Arthur Boutellis
Name
Robert Bradley
Interviewee's Position
Interim Component Manager, Safety and Security
Interviewee's Organization
Justice Sector Development Programme
Language
English
Town/City
Freetown
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract
Robert Bradley details his past policing experiences and discusses his role as the manager of the Justice Sector Development Programme in the security sector reform in Sierra Leone. Bradley outlines the program's priorities: supporting the Complaints, Discipline, Internal Investigation Department to build capacity, working with the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the inspector general of police, and encouraging police partnership boards at the grassroots level, where the community can hold the police accountable. Oversight agencies like the press, the courts, and non-governmental organizations also engaged in monitoring police activities. Bradley also highlights policing lessons drawn from his past experiences in Australia, Cambodia, Cyprus, Mozambique and other locales. He advises international organizations that are offering reform assistance to partner with locals who have knowledge of their country’s systems and laws. In the area of capacity building, he urges such organizations to design and develop training programs within the country, because people are more likely to accept homegrown solutions, and the outcomes last longer. 
 
Profile

At the time of this interview, Robert Bradley was the interim component manager ofsafety and security at the Justice Sector Development Programme in Freetown, Sierra Leone. His career in policing began in 1966 when he joined the former Australian Capital Territory police. In 1967, he was drafted into the army and he served in Vietnam. On his return to Australia in 1969, Bradley was reappointed to the ACT police. He participated in community policing in Jervis Bay and later, he worked on criminal investigations and in the Juvenile Aid Bureau. Bradley also served in the general policing division, which dealt primarily with positions related to United Nations work such as recruitment and training of officers for overseas deployment. He was a part of the U.N. missions to Cyprus, Cambodia and Mozambique. In 1995, Bradley resigned from the police force and set up police training programs in Bosnia, Eastern Slovenia, Mongolia and other areas.  

Full Audio File Size
63 MB
Full Audio Title
Robert Bradley - Full Interview

Julie Fleming

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Focus Area(s)
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3
Critical Tasks
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Arthur Boutellis
Name
Julie Fleming
Interviewee's Position
Chief, Community Policing Project
Interviewee's Organization
Kosovo
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
American
Place (Building/Street)
Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe offices
Town/City
Pristina, Republic of Kosovo
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

Julie Fleming describes how the International Crime Investigative Training Assistance Program started a pilot community policing program with five U.S. officers working in four municipalities in Kosovo. She gives details about the process of recruitment of community committees and the 12-week training program in Vushtrri; the project brought together young people from different ethnic backgrounds. At the time of the interview, it was present in 20 municipalities. A study showed long-term improvement in terms of freedom of movement, inter-ethnic relations, police-community relations, and other aspects. In her opinion, the main success of the project was that it was community-driven, although it suffered setbacks due to the political events of 2008. She also discusses her views on the successes and failures of community policing in Kosovo.

Case Study: Building the Police Service in a Security Vacuum: International Efforts in Kosovo, 1999-2011

Profile

At the time of this interview, Julie Fleming was chief of the community policing project in Kosovo, working with the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe and the U.S. International Crime Investigative Training Assistance Program. She started working as a police officer in 1985 and worked in California, in Oregon, in the Public Safety Academy, as a consultant in various U.S. states, and finally at the Regional Community Policing Institute (covering six western U.S. states) before coming to Kosovo in 2003 to implement the Community Safety Action Teams program.

Full Audio File Size
62MB
Full Audio Title
Julie Fleming Interview

Garry Horlacher

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I
Focus Area(s)
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8
Critical Tasks
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Arthur Boutellis
Name
Garry Horlacher
Interviewee's Position
Security Sector Reform Coordinator
Interviewee's Organization
U.K. Department for International Development
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
British
Place (Building/Street)
State House
Town/City
Freetown
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract
Garry Horlacher discusses police reform in Sierra Leone under the auspices of the U.K. Department for International Development and the United Nations. He identifies corrupt and inconsistent recruitment processes and low salaries for undermining the integrity of the Sierra Leone Police, and he emphasizes the need for improved funding and logistics. He discusses steps taken to address these issues, including managing the size of the police force and consistent, centralized recruitment practices. Horlacher also speaks about training and organization of the police force, and emphasizes the importance of coordination mechanisms between departments and agencies. He also discusses nascent performance and information management policies and community policing initiatives. Finally, Horlacher reflects on donor relations and U.N. policies, placing special emphasis on increased and consistent training of both U.N. and local police officers, and the coordination of priorities among donor organizations.
 
Profile

At the time of the interview, Garry Horlacher was security sector reform coordinator for the U.K. Department for International Development. Prior to that, he was part of the U.K. police for 30 years, retiring with the rank of chief superintendent.

Full Audio File Size
63MB
Full Audio Title
Garry Horlacher Interview

Rudolfo Landeros

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I
Focus Area(s)
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11
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Arthur Boutellis
Name
Rudolfo Landeros
Interviewee's Position
Senior Police Adviser
Interviewee's Organization
United Nations Integrated Office in Sierra Leone
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
American
Place (Building/Street)
United Nations Integrated Office
Town/City
Freetown
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

Rudolfo Landeros discusses improvements in capacity within the Sierra Leone Police with aid from the United Nations. He begins by discussing the challenges faced by the police, including logistical and budgetary constraints, and shortcomings in officer training. He reflects on the problem of discipline and accountability in the police, and discusses both internal accountability mechanisms as well as steps in the direction of creating an external oversight authority. He lauds the creation and performance of an unarmed Crowd Control Unit through the training of trainers within the police, and the success in policing the 2007 elections. He also speaks about the prevention of sexual harassment and discrimination within the police. Finally, he reflects on U.N. Police operations, and he argues that the operations would be improved by more extensive induction training, longer deployments for management and budgetary autonomy for non-executive departments.

Profile

At the time of this interview, Rudolfo Landeros was senior police adviser at the United Nations Integrated Office in Sierra Leone. Prior to that, he spent more than 24 years at the Austin, Texas, police department, where his positions included assistant chief of police.

Full Audio File Size
68MB
Full Audio Title
Rudolfo Landeros Interview

Astor Escalante Saravia

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Focus Area(s)
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1
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Flor Hunt
Name
Astor Escalante Saravia
Interviewee's Position
Vice Minister of Public Security and Justice
Interviewee's Organization
El Salvador
Language
Spanish
Nationality of Interviewee
El Salvadoran
Place (Building/Street)
Ministry of Public Security
Town/City
San Salvador
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

Astor Escalante Saravia explains the internal development of the Ministry of Public Security in El Salvador, which oversees all pertinent branches, including the National Civil Police and the National Academy for Public Security.  He describes a multi-player approach to institutional reform that involves the National Council on Security and Peace, UNDP, and a number of NGOs that specialize in crime prevention and rehabilitation for former gang members.  While recent reforms have been successful, he says, lack of resources remains a challenge. Concerning the National Civil Police, Saravia identifies three areas for improvement. The first has to do with the failure of the current model to insulate police officers who work within their own communities from risks and ties to the criminals that operate in the same turf. The second critical issue involves corruption.  He emphasizes the role of perception, and highlights the large impact of small measures like changing the uniforms of the Transit Police to increase accountability.  The third issue concerns proper police conduct and the problem of police brutality, which he says is being addressed nationwide by virtual training based on case studies.

Profile

At the time of this interview, Astor Escalante Saravia was El Salvador's vice minister of public security and justice, a post he held since 2006.  He was the director of the penitentiary system in 2005, after working for eight years in the National Public Prosecutor’s office as a prosecutor and chief prosecutor.  Previously he served as an adviser to the Ministry of Government, which oversaw the security sector until the Ministry of Public Security was created with a mandate to govern the police and associated agencies.

Full Audio File Size
72MB
Full Audio Title
Astor Escalante Saravia Interview

Behar Selimi

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Focus Area(s)
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16
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Arthur Boutellis
Name
Behar Selimi
Interviewee's Position
Assistant Commissioner for Border Police
Interviewee's Organization
Kosovo Police Service
Language
English
Town/City
Pristina
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

General Behar Selimi discusses the formation, structure, international aid relationship, and future of the Kosovan Police Service. He begins by explaining his personal involvement with Yugoslavian and then Kosovan public security service. General Selimi was part of the second class to graduate from the Kosovan police academy, which opened in 1999. He describes the original application process for the academy and the two systems of advancement within in the service, appointment and promotion. Appointment filled the higher ranks after examination by foreign supervisors and three weeks of senior management training under observation. Promotions filled vacancies in the service’s lower positions by selecting applicants from the rank below with the best combination of standardized test scores and interview evaluations. General Selimi then discusses the formation of the Kosovo Police Service, commenting on the roles of the UN Mission in Kosovo, International Police Officers, and Steve Bennett and others of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe. He explains the shortcomings of non-locals and high turnover rates in the international supervision of the Kosovan Police Service. While some International Police Officers greatly aided Kosovo’s effort to establish a security service, many inhibited the service’s development and delayed the transition of power to Kosovan officials, he says. He then expresses approval of the European Union Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo, hoping that they help Kosovo integrate into the European Union and other international organizations. He concludes by discussing lack of specialization and employee benefits as challenges still facing the Kosovan Police Service’s development.    

Case Study: Building the Police Service in a Security Vacuum: International Efforts in Kovoso, 1999-2011

Profile

At the time of the interview, General Behar Selimi was the Assistant Commissioner for Border Police of the Kosovo Police Service (KPS) and Acting Deputy Commissioner. He began his career in law enforcement in 1984 as a police academy cadet in the Yugoslavian system. He later organized a union of Kosovan ex-police officers who had been terminated during the political unrest of the 1990s. General Selimi became an officer in the Kosovan Police Service in 2000, serving as a traffic officer, public relations officer, and police service’s first spokesperson. In 2003, he became a Lieutenant Colonel in charge of VIP and vital facility protection. By 2004, he was the Deputy Commissioner of Administration, overseeing internal affairs, recruitment, budget issues, audit and control, departmental logistics, and more. He was appointed Assistant Police Commissioner for Border Police in 2007. General Selimi has also trained in Germany and the U.S.

Full Audio File Size
40 MB
Full Audio Title
Behar Selimi Interview

Keith Biddle

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A
Focus Area(s)
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4
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Gordon Peake
Name
Keith Biddle
Interviewee's Position
Retired
Interviewee's Organization
British police
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
English
Town/City
Cheshire, Manchester
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

Retired British police officer Keith Biddle recounts lessons learned from working on police reform programs in diverse contexts, including in Sierra Leone, where he headed the police force from 1999 to 2004, and in Somalia, South Africa and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Biddle discusses the challenges of effective information gathering in police force vetting and recruitment. He emphasizes that recruitment is a community- and school-based process that should not be rushed. He goes on to discuss his experience in Sierra Leone in determining whether to recruit rebels into the police force and describes the types of challenges countries have faced in building more professional and meritocratic police forces. Next, Biddle discusses the importance of effective organizational structures to lead the police and cautions that efforts to recruit new talent may be futile to the extent that new officers enter a corrupt structure with the “wrong ethos.” Training programs, he states, should be developed in-house, with regard to context and existing skills, knowledge, and staff capacity, and include topics such as human rights, anti-corruption, and enforcement standards. Effectively combating corruption, Biddle posits, requires making the police vocation “valuable” in terms of reputation and fringe benefits. Ultimately, Biddle notes, police reform is “part of good governance” and must receive support from the highest levels of government. While police reform may be costly, he concludes, post-conflict countries cannot be expected to more forward without sustainable and effective police forces.    

Case Study:  Building Strategic Capacity in the Police: Sierra Leone, 1998-2008

Profile

At the time of this interview, Keith Biddle was a consultant on police reform efforts in Africa and a retired officer of the British police. He became involved in international police reform in 1994 as a member of the British police force, in which capacity he served as deputy assistant commissioner in the Metropolitan Police and later as assistant inspector of the Constabulary in the Home Office. In 1994, he became the policing adviser to South Africa’s Independent Electoral Commission in advance of Nelson Mandela’s election. Following his work in South Africa, Biddle began to work with the U.K. Department for International Development on issues involving police reform, including in Indonesia, Ethiopia, Namibia and South Africa. Between 1999 and 2004, while working with the United Nations under DFID, Biddle headed the police force in Sierra Leone. He subsequently worked on police reform projects in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Somalia, and continued to be involved in police reform efforts in Africa.

Full Audio File Size
178 MB
Full Audio Title
Keith Biddle Interview

Rachel Neild

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A
Focus Area(s)
Ref Batch Number
15
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Daniel Scher
Name
Rachel Neild
Interviewee's Position
Senior Adviser, Open Society Justice Initiative
Interviewee's Organization
Open Society Institute
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
British/American
Town/City
Washington, DC
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

Rachel Neild describes police reform programs in Haiti, El Salvador and other parts of the world. She discusses extensively the challenges of effective recruitment and vetting, particularly in the presence of poor information. She goes on to discuss the process of integrating former combatants into police forces, noting that while starting police reform from scratch may have been necessary in Haiti, this need not be the case in other contexts if former forces are properly vetted and held to the same standards and qualifications as the rest of the police force. Neild goes on to discuss some of the challenges associated with the effective operationalization of the police force, including force composition, professionalization and community involvement. She concludes that policing is a “two-way street” that involves both developing and building trust of the police and ensuring that people “understand the nature of law and rights and responsibilities.”    

Profile

At the time of this interview, Rachel Neild was senior adviser on ethnic profiling and police reform with the Equality and Citizenship Program of the Open Society Justice Initiative. She previously worked with the Washington Office on Latin America, where she was involved in monitoring the Salvadoran peace accords and demilitarization policy in Haiti. She also worked with the Andean Commission of Jurists, Peru, and the Inter-American Institute for Human Rights, Costa Rica. Neild has done consultancies on human rights and policing for the Inter-American Development Bank, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the U.S. Agency for International Development, and Rights and Democracy, among other organizations.

Full Audio File Size
97 MB
Full Audio Title
Rachel Nelid - Full Interview