ethnic representation

Julie Fleming

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L
Focus Area(s)
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3
Critical Tasks
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Arthur Boutellis
Name
Julie Fleming
Interviewee's Position
Chief, Community Policing Project
Interviewee's Organization
Kosovo
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
American
Place (Building/Street)
Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe offices
Town/City
Pristina, Republic of Kosovo
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

Julie Fleming describes how the International Crime Investigative Training Assistance Program started a pilot community policing program with five U.S. officers working in four municipalities in Kosovo. She gives details about the process of recruitment of community committees and the 12-week training program in Vushtrri; the project brought together young people from different ethnic backgrounds. At the time of the interview, it was present in 20 municipalities. A study showed long-term improvement in terms of freedom of movement, inter-ethnic relations, police-community relations, and other aspects. In her opinion, the main success of the project was that it was community-driven, although it suffered setbacks due to the political events of 2008. She also discusses her views on the successes and failures of community policing in Kosovo.

Case Study: Building the Police Service in a Security Vacuum: International Efforts in Kosovo, 1999-2011

Profile

At the time of this interview, Julie Fleming was chief of the community policing project in Kosovo, working with the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe and the U.S. International Crime Investigative Training Assistance Program. She started working as a police officer in 1985 and worked in California, in Oregon, in the Public Safety Academy, as a consultant in various U.S. states, and finally at the Regional Community Policing Institute (covering six western U.S. states) before coming to Kosovo in 2003 to implement the Community Safety Action Teams program.

Full Audio File Size
62MB
Full Audio Title
Julie Fleming Interview

Faton Hamiti

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L
Focus Area(s)
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6
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Arthur Boutellis
Name
Faton Hamiti
Interviewee's Position
Administrative Assistant, Office of the Police Commissioner
Interviewee's Organization
United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo
Language
English
Place (Building/Street)
Kosovo Police Headquarters
Town/City
Pristina, Republic of Kosovo
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

Faton Hamiti describes how the police station in Kosovo where he worked as a language assistant moved from being predominantly staffed by U.N. Police officers to having mostly Kosovo Police Service officers. He explains that the first members of UNPOL to arrive in 1999 were well accepted, but they later encountered difficulties due to political issues, lack of cooperation from the population and differences in police techniques among the international officers that were training the KPS. He explains in detail the complex process of transferring power and responsibility from the UNPOL to the KPS, and how the complicated status of Kosovo reflected on policing. He also gives many accounts of his experience while patrolling with the police.

Case Study: Building the Police Service in a Security Vacuum: International Efforts in Kosovo, 1999-2011

Profile

At the time of this interview, Faton Hamiti was the administrative assistant in the Office of the Police Commissioner of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo. He initially worked as a journalist in a daily newspaper in Kosovo before the war and then became a language assistant with UNMIK, first with a U.N. Police patrol and later at the police-station level. In 2006 he started working with the deputy police commissioner for operations, and in 2008 he was assigned as personnel/administrative assistant to the police commissioner.

Full Audio File Size
62MB
Full Audio Title
Faton Hamiti Interview

Reshat Maliqi

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L
Focus Area(s)
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12
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Arthur Boutellis
Name
Reshat Maliqi
Interviewee's Position
Assistant Commissioner for Operations
Interviewee's Organization
Kosovo Police
Language
English
Place (Building/Street)
Kosovo Police Headquarters
Town/City
Pristina, Kosovo
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

General Reshat Maliqi discusses the main challenges faced by the police in Kosovo, including a boycott by Serbian officers due to the political situation. He gives details about the process of transition between the United Nations forces and the Kosovo Police, and the recruitment and promotion process. In his opinion, the Department for Community Affairs and the Community Policing Unit represented success stories in Kosovo. As the main priorities, he cites boosting investigative capacity through training, better equipping and training specialized units, and joining regional and international police organizations such as Europol and Interpol. He also believes that the Kosovo Police should take more responsibilities and rely less on the international community.

Case Study: Building the Police Service in a Security Vacuum: International Efforts in Kosovo, 1999-2011

Profile

At the time of this interview, General Reshat Maliqi was the assistant commissioner for operations in the Kosovo Police, a post he had held since April 2006. He studied at the Vushtrri Police Academy between 1975 and 1979, after which he worked for the Yugoslav police, including as a security officer at the consulate in San Francisco. In 1994 he was arrested by Serbia for “parallel policing” for Kosovo and was imprisoned for six years. In 2000 he started training with the Kosovo police service and worked for the United Nations mission in Kosovo. In 2003 he was appointed regional commander for Gelani. He was then appointed as head of the border police in Pristina.

Full Audio File Size
82MB
Full Audio Title
General Reshat Maliqi Interview

Garry Horlacher

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I
Focus Area(s)
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8
Critical Tasks
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Arthur Boutellis
Name
Garry Horlacher
Interviewee's Position
Security Sector Reform Coordinator
Interviewee's Organization
U.K. Department for International Development
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
British
Place (Building/Street)
State House
Town/City
Freetown
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract
Garry Horlacher discusses police reform in Sierra Leone under the auspices of the U.K. Department for International Development and the United Nations. He identifies corrupt and inconsistent recruitment processes and low salaries for undermining the integrity of the Sierra Leone Police, and he emphasizes the need for improved funding and logistics. He discusses steps taken to address these issues, including managing the size of the police force and consistent, centralized recruitment practices. Horlacher also speaks about training and organization of the police force, and emphasizes the importance of coordination mechanisms between departments and agencies. He also discusses nascent performance and information management policies and community policing initiatives. Finally, Horlacher reflects on donor relations and U.N. policies, placing special emphasis on increased and consistent training of both U.N. and local police officers, and the coordination of priorities among donor organizations.
 
Profile

At the time of the interview, Garry Horlacher was security sector reform coordinator for the U.K. Department for International Development. Prior to that, he was part of the U.K. police for 30 years, retiring with the rank of chief superintendent.

Full Audio File Size
63MB
Full Audio Title
Garry Horlacher Interview

Aaron Weah

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J
Focus Area(s)
Ref Batch Number
17
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Arthur Boutellis
Name
Aaron Weah
Interviewee's Position
National Program Assistant
Interviewee's Organization
International Center for Transitional Justice
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Liberian
Town/City
Monrovia
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract
Aaron Weah, the national program assistant at the International Center for Transitional Justice, talks about police reforms in Liberia. He discusses the deactivation of the former national police and the process of recruitment, vetting and training. He explains that the new police force had a human rights component, and it accounted for equal geographical representation, that is, ethnic representation, to limit politicization.  Weah also identifies the challenges faced when carrying out the reforms, which included the presence of armed ex-combatants, inadequate logistics, police underpayment, lack of public confidence in the police and the issue of fewer women in the force. Based on a study he conducted, Weah advocates learning the best police practices from other countries, for instance, the development of police-military relations, collaboration between the security sector and the civil society, and the amalgamation of security institutions. 
 
Profile

At the time of this interview, Aaron Weah was national program assistant at the International Center for Transitional Justice in Liberia. Before that, he worked for the Center for Democratic Empowerment. Initially, he was a research assistant and later, he became the program associate. He served as the focal person on the Security Sector Working Group, which was a coalition of leading civil-society organizations in Liberia that were committed to research and advocacy with the aim of guiding public policy processes on the reform of security agencies.  As part of the working group, he visited Ghana, Nigeria, Sierra Leone and South Africa to try to identify best practices in police reform. 

Full Audio File Size
50MB
Full Audio Title
Aaron Weah Interview

Mbaye Faye

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F
Focus Area(s)
Ref Batch Number
14
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Arthur Boutellis
Name
Mbaye Faye
Interviewee's Position
Director, Security Sector Reform and Small Arms
Interviewee's Organization
United Nations Integrated Mission in Burundi
Language
French
Nationality of Interviewee
Senegalese
Town/City
Bujumbura
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract
Colonel Mbaye Faye of the United Nations Integrated Mission in Burundi contends that during the peacekeeping phase, it was difficult to initiate reform because the nation had not reconciled itself, and elections were needed to determine the direction security would take. After the 2002 ceasefire, there was a choice possible between the integration and the fusion of forces. The army was 95 percent Tutsi, but Tutsis represented only 10 percent of the overall population. The major challenges facing the police were integration and rank amalgamation. Training was delivered regardless of the educational levels of the police, and moralization of the force was a major issue. Coordination between international actors was weak at first in 2004 but improved in 2006 with sectoral plans in SSR/SA, governance, and human rights/justice. The larger part of the work was left to bilaterals because the bilaterals can be involved in the longer run. The transition from peacekeeping to peacebuilding was difficult for the United Nations. Faye stresses that nationals need to be in the driver’s seat, saying "We are here to help them do the job, not to do the job for them." At the end of the interview, police adviser Alexi Ouedraogo adds some comments about the main priorities of the Burundi National Police and describes some of the existing programs by bilaterals and some of the projects that the U.N. mission was launching.
Profile

At the time of this interview, Colonel Mbaye Faye had served 40 years in the Senegal army and was the director of security sector reform and small arms for the United Nations Integrated Mission in Burundi. He received additional training from the French military officers' academy in St. Cyr.

Full Audio File Size
84 MB
Full Audio Title
Col. Mbaye Faye - Full Interview

Vincent Dzakpata

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I
Focus Area(s)
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4
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Arthur Boutellis
Name
Vincent Dzakpata
Interviewee's Position
United Nations Police Chief of Staff
Interviewee's Organization
United Nations Integrated Office in Sierra Leone
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Ghanaian
Town/City
Freetown
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

Vincent Dzakpata recounts his experiences as the United Nations Police chief of staff in the U.N. Integrated Office in Sierra Leone.  He was brought in to help build the capacity of the Sierra Leone police service and improve professionalism in preparation for the 2007 presidential and parliamentary elections.  Dzakpata identifies some of the major obstacles that reformers in the country faced, including a lack of motivation and commitment among officers and their reluctance to take ownership of proposed reforms.  Another major issue was poverty.  Many of the members of the Sierra Leone police were under severe financial pressure, to the point that it inhibited their ability to perform their jobs.  The officers, particularly those of the unarmed general policing unit, often lacked the self-confidence required to effectively do their jobs; some claimed that northerners tended to be favored in the system.  Dzakpata maintains the importance of improving the self-regulation mechanisms within the police force, as well as the expansion of the mechanisms in place for external regulation, including the Complaints Disciplinary Internal Investigations Department, which he commends as having helped restore public trust in the Sierra Leone police.  He suggests that reforms likely would have achieved greater success and permanance if the U.N. had the authority to take disciplinary action against state officers who resisted change.

Case Study:  Building Strategic Capacity in the Police: Sierra Leone, 1998-2008

Profile

At the time of this interview, Vincent Dzakpata was the United Nations Police chief of staff in the U.N. Integrated Office in Sierra Leone.  After leaving teacher training college, he joined the police force in his native Ghana for a number of years, working in many departments including criminal investigations and operations, and eventually served as both a divisional and regional police commander.  Dzakpata’s first experience with international policing came with his 1997 deployment to Bosnia, where he served as a district human rights officer and later as a district elections officer.  He was deployed to Sierra Leone in 2006, initially as the U.N. police adviser on professional standards and eventually as the chief of staff of the U.N. police. 

Full Audio File Size
55 MB
Full Audio Title
Vincent Dzakpata Interview

Muhamet Musliu

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L
Focus Area(s)
Ref Batch Number
13
Critical Tasks
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Arthur Boutellis
Name
Muhamet Musliu
Interviewee's Position
Administrative and Language Assistant
Interviewee's Organization
UN Mission in Kosovo Police
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Libyan
Place (Building/Street)
Kosovo Police Headquarters
Town/City
Pristina, Kosovo
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

An administrative and language assistant for the U.N. Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) Police, Muhamet Musliu speaks about his eight-year experience with the service.  Through his role as an interpreter, he gives a firsthand account of the successes and failures of the UNMIK Police.  He discusses the daily police routine and challenges faced by an officer in Kosovo, and he provides detail about ethnic tensions and protests in areas around Mitrovica.  He continues by describing the diversity of the UNMIK Police and the recruiting process.  Finally Musliu discusses the Serbian protest against the Kosovo Declaration of Independence, citing its crippling effect on the UNMIK Police.    

Case Study:  Building the Police Service in a Security Vacuum: International Efforts in Kosovo, 1999-2011

Profile

At the time of the interview Muhamet Musliu was an administrative and language assistant with the U.N. Mission in Kosovo Police.  He worked in the police headquarters in Priština, and had experience from the ethnically diverse territory covered by the Mitrovica South police station. 

Full Audio File Size
83 MB
Full Audio Title
Muhamet Musliu Interview

Peter Miller

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B
Focus Area(s)
Ref Batch Number
5
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Arthur Boutellis
Name
Peter Miller
Interviewee's Position
Police Commissioner
Interviewee's Organization
United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Canadian
Town/City
Ottawa
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract
Peter Miller draws on his experience in East Timor to highlight the challenges of building a domestic police force. He stresses that reformers must resist pressures to politicize the police by hiring unqualified friends of elected officials. Miller also mentions the difficulties posed by donor countries that press for fast action in order to minimize their costs. He says such pressures often produce domestic police forces that are inadequately prepared to take over when interim police units withdraw, as was the case in East Timor. Miller also is critical of the quality of many of the international police officers from contributing countries, especially those without a strong tradition of community policing. He calls for greater investments in the training of police officers before they are deployed, as well as in situ training of citizens. 
Profile

Peter Miller served with the Royal Canadian Mounted Police for 35 years, during which we worked mainly in international police peacekeeping. Under United Nations auspices, he served as deputy commissioner of operations and training in Haiti, police commissioner for the United Nations in Western Sahara and later as police commissioner in East Timor. In Western Sahara, Miller had police officers from 10 countries under his command and in East Timor he oversaw a police force of 3,000 officers including both local and international police. After retiring from the RCMP, Miller worked with the Pearson Peacekeeping Centre, a Canadian nonprofit organization, on capacity building in Africa related to peacekeeping operations.

Full Audio File Size
78 MB
Full Audio Title
Peter Miller - Full Interview

Giorgio Butini

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R
Focus Area(s)
Ref Batch Number
1
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Matthew Devlin
Name
Giorgio Butini
Interviewee's Position
Former Central Coordinator and Deputy Head of Program
Interviewee's Organization
Proxima (EU police mission in Macedonia)
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Italian
Town/City
Skopje
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

Giorgio Butini, police adviser to the Office of the EUSR/EU Commission Delegation in Skopje, Macedonia, recounts his experiences while serving as central coordinator and deputy head of program for Proxima, the European Union police mission in the former Yugoslav republic.  During 18 years with the Italian State Police, he rose to the rank of lieutenant colonel.  Butini discusses the coordination of efforts of various external organizations in the transition from a military to civilian police force in Macedonia.  His reflections about the representation of ethnic Albanians and Macedonians in the reformed police force and his insights into the coordination of efforts between and among external and internal actors contribute to the conversation on structural components of policing reform.

Profile

At the time of this interview, Giorgio Butini was police adviser to the Office of the EUSR/ EU Commission Delegation in Skopje, Macedonia. A lieutenant colonel of the Italian State Police with 18 years of active service, in 2001 he joined the United Nations mission in Kosovo, where he served for more than a year as deputy regional commander in the Pec/Peja Region.  In 2003 he went to Brussels as a police expert during the Italian presidency of the European Union.  In October 2003 he was part of the planning team in Brussels and Skopje that launched Proxima,  the EU police mission in the former Yugoslav republic, where he served for two years, first as central coordinator and then as deputy head of program.  Co-author of a manual on international police missions, he was also a trainer at the European Police Academy beginning in 2002.

Full Audio File Size
37.5MB
Full Audio Title
Giorgio Butini- Full Interview