disciplinary system

Motlepu Marhakhe

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Focus Area(s)
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3
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Daniel Scher
Name
Motlepu Marhakhe
Interviewee's Position
Deputy Director
Interviewee's Organization
Office of the Inspector of Police
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Lesotho
Place (Building/Street)
Police Inspectorate
Town/City
Maseru
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

Motlepu Marhakhe discusses the various entities comprising Lesotho’s police force. He focuses on the Police Inspectorate, Lesotho Mounted Police Service (LMPS) and the Police Authority who oversees both agencies. Lesotho’s police service was relatively new at the time of the interview, having been created only five years prior. Marhakhe says that the nature of policing in Lesotho has changed over time. The focus of the police has increasingly been towards community-oriented policing on account of democratic influences in Lesotho. In much of the interview, Marhakhe discusses the relationship between the main Police Authority, and the LMPS and Police Inspectorate. Marhakhe explains that the Minister does not propose policies, but rather approves or denies proposals made by the LMPS. Most of the responsibilities of the police force in Lesotho fall on the shoulders of those working in the Police Inspectorate, not the Police Authority (Minister). When given a mandate by the Police Authority, Marhakhe said that both the Police Inspectorate and LMPS regularly collaborate and discuss to form strategies.    

Case Study:  Reining in a Rogue Agency: Police Reform in Lesotho, 1997-2010

Profile

At the time of this interview, Marhakhe was deputy inspector at the Police Inspectorate. This agency is separate from the Lesotho Mounted Police Service (LMPS). Marhakhe had previously served as assistant commissioner of the police for LMPS. On account of his prior experience in LMPS, he was later recruited to work in the Police Inspectorate, which oversees the policing service in Lesotho.

Full Audio File Size
25 MB
Full Audio Title
Motlepu Marhakhe Interview

Muhamet Musliu

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Focus Area(s)
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13
Critical Tasks
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Arthur Boutellis
Name
Muhamet Musliu
Interviewee's Position
Administrative and Language Assistant
Interviewee's Organization
UN Mission in Kosovo Police
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Libyan
Place (Building/Street)
Kosovo Police Headquarters
Town/City
Pristina, Kosovo
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

An administrative and language assistant for the U.N. Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) Police, Muhamet Musliu speaks about his eight-year experience with the service.  Through his role as an interpreter, he gives a firsthand account of the successes and failures of the UNMIK Police.  He discusses the daily police routine and challenges faced by an officer in Kosovo, and he provides detail about ethnic tensions and protests in areas around Mitrovica.  He continues by describing the diversity of the UNMIK Police and the recruiting process.  Finally Musliu discusses the Serbian protest against the Kosovo Declaration of Independence, citing its crippling effect on the UNMIK Police.    

Case Study:  Building the Police Service in a Security Vacuum: International Efforts in Kosovo, 1999-2011

Profile

At the time of the interview Muhamet Musliu was an administrative and language assistant with the U.N. Mission in Kosovo Police.  He worked in the police headquarters in Priština, and had experience from the ethnically diverse territory covered by the Mitrovica South police station. 

Full Audio File Size
83 MB
Full Audio Title
Muhamet Musliu Interview

Peter Miller

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Focus Area(s)
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5
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Arthur Boutellis
Name
Peter Miller
Interviewee's Position
Police Commissioner
Interviewee's Organization
United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Canadian
Town/City
Ottawa
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract
Peter Miller draws on his experience in East Timor to highlight the challenges of building a domestic police force. He stresses that reformers must resist pressures to politicize the police by hiring unqualified friends of elected officials. Miller also mentions the difficulties posed by donor countries that press for fast action in order to minimize their costs. He says such pressures often produce domestic police forces that are inadequately prepared to take over when interim police units withdraw, as was the case in East Timor. Miller also is critical of the quality of many of the international police officers from contributing countries, especially those without a strong tradition of community policing. He calls for greater investments in the training of police officers before they are deployed, as well as in situ training of citizens. 
Profile

Peter Miller served with the Royal Canadian Mounted Police for 35 years, during which we worked mainly in international police peacekeeping. Under United Nations auspices, he served as deputy commissioner of operations and training in Haiti, police commissioner for the United Nations in Western Sahara and later as police commissioner in East Timor. In Western Sahara, Miller had police officers from 10 countries under his command and in East Timor he oversaw a police force of 3,000 officers including both local and international police. After retiring from the RCMP, Miller worked with the Pearson Peacekeeping Centre, a Canadian nonprofit organization, on capacity building in Africa related to peacekeeping operations.

Full Audio File Size
78 MB
Full Audio Title
Peter Miller - Full Interview

Gareth Newham

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Focus Area(s)
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1
Critical Tasks
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Daniel Scher
Name
Gareth Newham
Interviewee's Position
Policy and Strategy Adviser
Interviewee's Organization
Gauteng Provincial MEC for Community Safety
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
South African
Town/City
Johannesburg
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract
Gareth Newham discusses the challenges of reforming the police service and building the rule of law in post-apartheid South Africa. As a policy and strategy adviser, he identifies shortcomings in the police force, formulates projects to fix them, and assists in implementing the solutions.  Newham touches upon issues of promotion, discipline, information management, and anti-corruption measures in Gauteng. For example, he believes that the best way to combat corruption is to create a culture in which police officers condemn corruption within their own ranks. In collaboration with actual members of the police force, Newham developed an anti-corruption model based on prevention, detection, investigation, and restoration. By instructing police officers ahead of time of the consequences of engaging in corruptive behavior, the police force could take proactive measures towards fighting corruption. Newham drew upon the research of others in implementing police reforms, but he acknowledges that there is no single way to create an effective police force. Instead, reforms must be tailored to the specific society.          
Profile

Gareth Newham studied organizational psychology and political studies at the University of Cape Town. He completed a post-graduate degree in political studies and wrote his honors dissertation on civil-military relations and how South Africa could ensure democratic control of the military. In 2002, he received a master’s degree from the Graduate School for Public and Development Management at Wits University. His master’s dissertation looked at how to promote police integrity at Hillbrow Police Station, a corrupt inner-city station. Newham previously worked for the Institute for Democracy in South Africa (IDASA) where he led the Provincial Parliamentary Monitoring Project and conducted research on provincial legislatures. He later served as project manager for the Center for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation (CSVR) where he focused on police management issues and crime prevention. In March 2006, Newham became the policy and strategy adviser to the Gauteng MEC (Member of the Executive Cabinet) for Community Safety, a post he continued to hold at the time of this interview.       

Full Audio Title
Audio Available Upon Request

Building Civilian Police Capacity: Post-Conflict Liberia, 2003-2011

Author
Jonathan (Yoni) Friedman and Christine MacAulay
Focus Area(s)
Country of Reform
Abstract
As Liberia began to emerge from civil war in 2003, the warring sides agreed to overhaul the discredited national police service. In the Comprehensive Peace Agreement signed in Accra, Ghana, the parties designated the United Nations as the lead body in rebuilding and reforming Liberia’s civilian police capacity. In a joint effort between Liberian and U.N. police, led initially by U.N. Police Commissioner Mark Kroeker and Liberian Inspector General Chris Massaquoi, reformers vetted and trained a new police service of more than 4,000 officers, established specialized units to combat gender-based violence and high-risk threats, improved internal accountability mechanisms, and began to reverse the sordid reputation for unlawful killings and rape the police had earned during Liberia’s civil war. This case offers insights into the development of the Liberia National Police, one of the successes in post-war Liberia and an uncommon example of successful post-war police reform.
 

Jonathan (Yoni) Friedman drafted this case study on the basis of interviews conducted in Monrovia, Liberia, during June and July 2011, and on the basis of interviews conducted by Arthur Boutellis in Monrovia in May 2008 and text prepared by Christine MacAulay.  Case published September 2011. A separate case study, “Building an Inclusive, Responsive National Police Service: Gender-Sensitive Reform in Liberia, 2005-2011” describes efforts to increase gender diversity and respond to high rates of sexual and gender-based violence in Liberia.

Associated Interview(s):  Bruce Baker, Ibrahim Idris, Joseph Kekula, Mark Kroeker, Robert Perito, Paavani Reddy, Aaron Weah, Peter F. Zaizay

Building the Police Service in a Security Vacuum: International Efforts in Kosovo, 1999-2011

Author
Morgan Greene, Jonathan (Yoni) Friedman and Richard Bennet
Focus Area(s)
Country of Reform
Abstract
In 1999, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) intervened to end a brutal war between the Kosovo Liberation Army on one side and the Yugoslav Army and Serb police on the other. After 78 days of air strikes over Kosovo and Serbia, Yugoslav forces officially disengaged from Kosovo on 20 June. The departure created a policing vacuum in a society that had deep ethnic divisions.  Kosovo’s Albanians attacked residents of Serb descent in retaliation for earlier ethnic violence.  Crime and looting spread while criminal gangs asserted control in lawless parts of the territory. Serb officers had vastly outnumbered Albanians in Kosovo’s police service and had taken their direction from Belgrade. As many Serbs fled and others refused to cooperate with Kosovan authorities, Kosovo lost its trained police and police infrastructure. To fill the void, the United Nations assumed executive authority over the territory.  Together with other international groups, the U.N. mission worked to establish and maintain law and order while organizing and training a Kosovo Police Service to assume gradual control. By 2008, the Kosovo police had become a professional force, securing law and order and developing one of the best reputations in the region. This case study offers an example of how a sustained effort by the international community can produce an effective police service in the wake of conflict.
 

Morgan Greene, Jonathan Friedman and Richard Bennet drafted this case study on the basis of interviews conducted in Priština and Mitrovica, Kosovo, in July 2011, as well as interviews conducted in Kosovo by Arthur Boutellis in July 2008. Case published February 2012.

Associated Interview(s):  Shantnu Chandrawat, Julie Fleming, Iver Frigaard, Oliver Janser, Reshat Maliqi, Muhamet Musliu, Robert Perito, Behar Selimi, Riza Shillova, Mustafa Resat Tekinbas

 

Keith Biddle

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A
Focus Area(s)
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4
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Gordon Peake
Name
Keith Biddle
Interviewee's Position
Retired
Interviewee's Organization
British police
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
English
Town/City
Cheshire, Manchester
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

Retired British police officer Keith Biddle recounts lessons learned from working on police reform programs in diverse contexts, including in Sierra Leone, where he headed the police force from 1999 to 2004, and in Somalia, South Africa and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Biddle discusses the challenges of effective information gathering in police force vetting and recruitment. He emphasizes that recruitment is a community- and school-based process that should not be rushed. He goes on to discuss his experience in Sierra Leone in determining whether to recruit rebels into the police force and describes the types of challenges countries have faced in building more professional and meritocratic police forces. Next, Biddle discusses the importance of effective organizational structures to lead the police and cautions that efforts to recruit new talent may be futile to the extent that new officers enter a corrupt structure with the “wrong ethos.” Training programs, he states, should be developed in-house, with regard to context and existing skills, knowledge, and staff capacity, and include topics such as human rights, anti-corruption, and enforcement standards. Effectively combating corruption, Biddle posits, requires making the police vocation “valuable” in terms of reputation and fringe benefits. Ultimately, Biddle notes, police reform is “part of good governance” and must receive support from the highest levels of government. While police reform may be costly, he concludes, post-conflict countries cannot be expected to more forward without sustainable and effective police forces.    

Case Study:  Building Strategic Capacity in the Police: Sierra Leone, 1998-2008

Profile

At the time of this interview, Keith Biddle was a consultant on police reform efforts in Africa and a retired officer of the British police. He became involved in international police reform in 1994 as a member of the British police force, in which capacity he served as deputy assistant commissioner in the Metropolitan Police and later as assistant inspector of the Constabulary in the Home Office. In 1994, he became the policing adviser to South Africa’s Independent Electoral Commission in advance of Nelson Mandela’s election. Following his work in South Africa, Biddle began to work with the U.K. Department for International Development on issues involving police reform, including in Indonesia, Ethiopia, Namibia and South Africa. Between 1999 and 2004, while working with the United Nations under DFID, Biddle headed the police force in Sierra Leone. He subsequently worked on police reform projects in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Somalia, and continued to be involved in police reform efforts in Africa.

Full Audio File Size
178 MB
Full Audio Title
Keith Biddle Interview

Carlos Manuel Lopes Pereira

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22
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Nicolas Lemay-Hebert
Name
Carlos Manuel Lopes Pereira
Interviewee's Position
Dili District Deputy Commander
Interviewee's Organization
United Nations Police, East Timor
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
Portuguese
Town/City
Dili
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract
Carlos Manuel Lopes Pereira describes his work for United Nations missions in the former Yugoslavia in the 1990s, and then recounts how he came to Timor-Leste with the U.N. Police. He focuses on legal issues of the U.N. policing mission, such as the complex legal traditions of Timor-Leste, the specific prosecuting procedures in Timorese law, and the differences between Kosovo, Bosnia and Timor-Leste. He describes in detail the way in which the UNPOL dealt with a series of student protests in Dili, and with the general problems of gangs, pickpocketing, cultural differences and with bureaucracy and absenteeism within the institution. He also discusses how UNPOL had been mentoring and training the National Police of Timor-Leste. 
Profile

At the time of this interview, Carlos Manuel Lopes Pereira was serving as Dili district deputy commander for the United Nations Police mission in Timor-Leste.  He was a member of the Portuguese police for 20 years. He was the commander of a police unit north of Lisbon, and had previously worked as chief supervisor in Portugal.  He served in U.N. missions in Croatia, Bosnia, Kosovo and  Timor-Leste.

Full Audio File Size
91MB
Full Audio Title
Carlos Manuel Lopes Pereira Interview

José Humberto Posada Sánchez

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8
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Flor Hunt
Name
José Humberto Posada Sánchez
Interviewee's Position
Legal Adviser to the Office of General Management
Interviewee's Organization
National Police of El Salvador
Language
Spanish
Nationality of Interviewee
El Salvadoran
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract
José Humberto Posada Sánchez begins by describing his work with police legislation in El Salvador and the internal structure of the National Police of El Salvador (Policía Nacional Civil), its rank and promotion system and the initial quota system.  He talks about the demilitarization of the police force and the creation and integration of the new civil police force.  He also discusses crime prevention and investigation, policing and human rights, problems of funding and the role of donor countries in training with community policing.  Efforts taken to reduce corruption, internal divisions and police brutality are also referenced.
Profile

At the time of this interview, José Humberto Posada Sánchez was the legal adviser to the Office of General Management of the National Police of El Salvador (Policía Nacional Civil).  This post involved providing legal counsel, writing legislation and  implementing national legislation into the internal policy of the national police.  He previously served as a member of Congress, ambassador to Guatemala, member of the Central American Parliament and adviser to the vice minister of citizen security after the Sub-Department for Citizen Security was created in 2002.  He also worked on the Ley Orgánica de la Polícia Nacional Civil of 2002, national legislation that sought to strengthen the police force.

Full Audio File Size
114.8MB
Full Audio Title
Jose Posada Sanchez

Rudolfo Landeros

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Focus Area(s)
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11
Country of Reform
Interviewers
Arthur Boutellis
Name
Rudolfo Landeros
Interviewee's Position
Senior Police Adviser
Interviewee's Organization
United Nations Integrated Office in Sierra Leone
Language
English
Nationality of Interviewee
American
Place (Building/Street)
United Nations Integrated Office
Town/City
Freetown
Country
Date of Interview
Reform Profile
No
Abstract

Rudolfo Landeros discusses improvements in capacity within the Sierra Leone Police with aid from the United Nations. He begins by discussing the challenges faced by the police, including logistical and budgetary constraints, and shortcomings in officer training. He reflects on the problem of discipline and accountability in the police, and discusses both internal accountability mechanisms as well as steps in the direction of creating an external oversight authority. He lauds the creation and performance of an unarmed Crowd Control Unit through the training of trainers within the police, and the success in policing the 2007 elections. He also speaks about the prevention of sexual harassment and discrimination within the police. Finally, he reflects on U.N. Police operations, and he argues that the operations would be improved by more extensive induction training, longer deployments for management and budgetary autonomy for non-executive departments.

Profile

At the time of this interview, Rudolfo Landeros was senior police adviser at the United Nations Integrated Office in Sierra Leone. Prior to that, he spent more than 24 years at the Austin, Texas, police department, where his positions included assistant chief of police.

Full Audio File Size
68MB
Full Audio Title
Rudolfo Landeros Interview