In this interview, Graham Stockwell, the former Head of Operations, Deputy Commissioner of the Independent Commission Against Corruption (ICAC) in Hong Kong, as well as the former Director of The Directorate on Commission and Economic Crime (DCEC) in Botswana, details his experiences in the creation and implementation of successful anti-corruption departments. He served in Hong Kong from 1984-1992, and there became more interested in anti-corruption work—specifically about the prevention and educational aspects. He explained how randomly while in Hong Kong, Botswana officials who were impressed by the ICAC program traveled all the way to Hong Kong in order to inquire for help and advice form him about the problems they were having in their country. They asked him to travel to Botswana to help. Upon this request, Stockwell left for Botswana in June 1992 where for two weeks he looked into files that had to do with corruption of the police, customs, and tax offices. He was able to interview people in these different areas as well. Stockwell explained how within this investigation, he discovered that there were problems within the tendering process of Botswana in combination with the fact that there was a lack of attention paid to corruption in the country overall. Stockwell states how the Botswana government appointed him the director of the DCEC due to how he requested a force for investigation, prevention, and education in Hong Kong; and they believed that he was the best man to spearhead such a project in their country. Within the interview, Stockwell stressed how the DCEC was started with nothing; and that the accommodations such an office, furniture, transportation, and other resources needed to be sought out. Following their attainment of these necessities, Stockwell explains how they needed to recruit individuals for the DCEC, so there was the formation of a government formation policy group where there was recruitment predominately via the radio. After recruiting individuals, who were mostly from the United Kingdom and police officers from the local community, the next step was legislation. Stockwell and his 4 colleagues split up to all parts of Botswana and explained the anti-corruption legislation, and received huge governmental backing from the likes of President Sir Quett Masire and his ministers. Also, Stockwell elaborates on some of the cases which were tried during his tenure, and the roles of the investigation, prevention, and education departments within the DCEC. He details how upon leaving Botswana and the DCEC following 4 years of hard work, he believes he left behind a very well-functioning agency; it was the first department that had been set up since the country became independent and it was impressively created from scratch.
Case Study: Managing Corruption Risks: Botswana Builds an Anti-Graft Agency, 1994-2012
At the time of this interview, Graham Stockwell had a great depth of experience of working in anti-corruptions in Hong Kong and Botswana. Stockwell first became involved in fighting corruption upon his joining of the London Metropolitan Police. After three years of serving as a constable for the force, he was promoted to a detective. As detective, he served most of his time in either Criminal Intelligence or in white-collar crime in the Company Fraud Department. Within the thirty years served on the force, he continued to investigate white collar-crime as he moved up in rank, until he retired from the Metropolitan Police as the Commander of the Metropolitan and City of London Company Fraud Department. Prior to his retirement, Stockwell was asked to go to Hong Kong to be the Head of Operations, Deputy Commissioner of the Independent Commission Against Corruption (ICAC). He served there 1984-1992; and became more interested in anti-corruption work—specifically about prevention and educational aspects of corruption. He then was summoned by Botswana officials to aid them in their quest for the creation of an anti-corruption agency. While in Botswana, Stockwell served as the Director of The Directorate on Commission and Economic Crime (DCEC); where him and four of his colleagues created the anti-corruption department from the ground up. He was the leader of creating this department that aimed to investigate, prevent, and educate about corruption in order to eliminate its culmination in Botswana. Through being a part of the successful anti-corruption agencies in both Hong Kong and Botswana, Stockwell stresses that honesty and education of the public, along with the right caliber of officials to lead the agencies, are vital in the success of anti-corruption efforts.