Eric Shitindi, deputy permanent secretary in the President's Office, Public Sector Management, discusses the change in focus of Tanzanian civil service reforms from cost containment in the 1990s to improving service delivery after 2000. Shitindi describes the need for reforms that boosted the quality rather than the quantity of civil servants. He charts the development and implementation of a performance management model based on self evaluation, to promote accountability and results-oriented management among individual employees. Shitindi also discusses the restructuring of public organs to diminish overlapping functions and streamline operations. Within this reorganization effort, he focuses on the role of executive agencies, which were semi-autonomous operations that took over functions that had previously bogged down ministries. Shitindi shares his thoughts on the determinants of disparities between executive agencies. He further discusses efforts to make employment more meritocratic by adjusting payment schedules and career paths. Shitindi concludes by citing the importance of sequencing and prioritization to the Tanzanian reform effort.