"Everybody’s Business": Mobilizing Citizens During Liberia’s Ebola Outbreak, 2014–2015

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Abstract 

When Ebola crossed into Liberia in early 2014, the West African nation had few defenses. Because no effective vaccine was available at the time, the only way to limit the spread of the viral disease was to restrict physical contact with those who were infected, what they had touched, and the bodies of victims. But that advice countermanded the most basic of human instincts: to comfort a sick child, hug an ill relative, or shake hands with a friend or coworker. The challenge of changing human behavior was especially difficult because Liberia was still recovering from a long civil war. Public distrust of government, persistent rumors, linguistic diversity, and limited communication capacity hobbled efforts to send a clear public message and win citizens’ cooperation. After top-down tactics—including forcible quarantines of whole communities—failed to stem the rate of infection, a small team of Liberian officials, supported by international partners, realized that effective steps to contain the disease would require active participation by citizens themselves. The officials engaged Liberians in developing an information campaign and recruited people throughout the country to visit their neighbors door-to-door, explain the steps people could take to protect themselves, and respond to questions. Although the complexity of the Ebola response and the volatility of the outbreak had made it hard to measure the success of the social mobilization effort in reducing new infections, an analysis of timing together with anecdotal evidence strongly suggested that the effort helped save lives and contributed to the disease’s decline during the final months of 2014.

Leon Schreiber drafted this case study based on interviews conducted in Monrovia, Liberia in April and May 2016, with guidance and additional information provided by Jennifer Widner and Beatrice Godefroy.

Princeton University’s Health Grand Challenge supported the research and development of this case study, which is part of a series on public management challenges in the West African Ebola Outbreak response.

 

Timeline: West African Ebola Outbreak (infographic)

Keywords 
social mobilization
emergency response
disease outbreak
epidemiological modeling
pandemics
data management
quarantine
infection control
incidence management system
Focus Area(s): 
Ebola Response
Critical Tasks: 
Action plans
Community policing
Consensus building
Coordination
Donor coordination
Follow-up & monitoring
Goal setting
Inter-ministerial coordination
Monitoring
Organization and staffing
Priority setting
Public outreach
Scenario building
Social mobilization
Core Challenge: 
Capacity (capability traps)
Coordination
Credibility (trust)
Country of Reform: 
Liberia
Type: 
Case Studies
Author: 
Leon Schreiber